Archive for the ‘Main’ Category

3802ICT Programming Languages Problem 1: Simpson’s Rule

Thursday, August 20th, 2020

3802ICT Programming Languages, Trimester 2, 2020
Assignment 1
School of Information and Communication Technology
Griffith University
August 19, 2020
Marks 20
Due 11:59 pm, Tuesday 8 September, 2020.
1 Problems
Problem 1: Simpson’s Rule (5 marks)
Problem: Create a Haskell module that exports a higher order function that will numerically
integrate a function f(x) with type Double -> Double from a lower limit a to an upper limit
b, using Simpson’s 1/3 rule, to a given tolerance, .
The solution must be efficient, in that it should not call f(x) for the same x value twice.
Also provide a Main module with a test driver.
Problem 2: Quadtrees (5 marks)
Problem 3: Another Puzzling Problem (5 marks)
Problem 4: A Plug For UNIX (5 marks)
2 Submission
• Make sure your scripts are a plain text files, with a names ending in .hs or .lhs.
• Put each solution in a folder named Problemn .
• Put all these folders in a folder named your family name, eg Rock.
• Zip it, and submit via the link on Learning@Griffith. Multiple submissions will be accepted, but
only the last one will be marked.
3 Extensions
Extensions must only be applied for by the official online system, with appropriate documentation.
3.1 Help
• Ask questions in labs.
• Ask questions in the Assignment 1 chat on Teams. Post no code. Anything in English is OK. Watch
what other people are asking for clues.
3.2 Feedback
• Marks to the marks centre on Learning@Griffith.
• Via the Rubric on Learning@Griffith.

In 2-3 pages, please review and do a full study

Thursday, August 20th, 2020


In 2-3 pages, please review and do a full study. This assignment will come from chapter 2 on page 2.7. Review the case named “Electroplater Who Claims He Has No Hazardous Waste”. In this study, briefly evaluate the information and your evaluation of the case. In addition, research the Internet and locate an incident that has a related occurrence to this incident. Please discuss and describe the entire case. Be sure to correctly cite all information and in accordance with APA formatting.

Submission Instructions: Please attach the assignment in Word Format. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. (Note: Please do not forget to include the author of the case to the references)

Electroplater Who Claims He Has No Hazardous Waste
Many facilities have tried to be clever with the waste determinations, claiming there isn’t really a waste because they still have use for it, or might have a use for it someday.
In one such case, an inspector visited an electroplating company (see Figure 2.5) where the owner was already under investigation for other unrelated behavior. The inspector obtained a search warrant based on employee complaints about poor waste management practices and potential health and safety issues.
Upon arrival, and after waiting for a uniformed officer to serve the search warrant, the inspector entered the facility and found two major issues:
Several hundred containers of electroplating chemicals were scattered throughout a very old and crumbling six story building. The owner insisted that none of the containers were waste. He claimed that they were still good plating solutions, and that they were being saved for later use. Upon testing the containers, it turned out that virtually all of the “good” plating solutions were actually spent to a point where they would be virtually useless in the future. The owner was accumulating these containers in order to avoid the cost of proper disposal.
The facility was still conducting electroplating, with numerous health and safety issues, including a “green fog” of fumes throughout the building from the plating operation. The workers complained of irritating fumes and respiratory problems. In addition, there was a large plating tank divided into two parts by one steel plate, a cyanide solution was contained on one side and an acid bath on the other. Any mixture of the two solutions would have caused a release of deadly cyanide gas.
Larger View

Figure 2.5: Electroplater who claimed to have no hazardous waste.
The inspector immediately contacted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), who immediately shut down the facility due to the imminent hazard associated with the tank containing acid and cyanide.
The owner claimed none of the containers contained waste. He stated that all of the containers contained valuable and useable plating solutions that he planned to use in the future. The sheer quantity of “product” was staggering, with hundreds of containers, some in very poor condition, scattered all over the six-story building.
To deal with the “product” that was actually waste, the federal government called the practice speculative accumulation and declared the entire property a hazardous waste cleanup site. The USEPA spent over $2 million securing the site and removing the containers. The building was demolished after the cleanup because it was deemed to be structurally unsound.
The case studies above give a few examples of the issues associated with the identification of hazardous waste. The hazardous waste regulations can be interpreted in many different ways, and the safest determination is one agreed to by the USEPA and the home state regulatory agency staff. Any company that makes an independent waste identification or relies on a waste broker or vendor is taking a risk that may cause problems and possible additional costs.

Hazardous Waste Management: An Introduction
By Clifton VanGuilder (2012)

Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology

Thursday, August 20th, 2020

Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology
Regional pain disorder can traumatize patients for years if they do not receive the right treatment. Providers should make a careful analysis and prescribe effective medication to manage the pain. One of the best decisions is to prescribe Savella which is effective in chronic pain management (Hollander et al., 2020). Providers should also educate patients to enhance compliance and trust. Clinicians should also observe ethical guidelines to enhance the quality of treatment. The prescription of Savella requires a careful analysis of patient outcomes to promote recovery and suppress side effects.
Decision #1
The first decision is to prescribe Savella 12.5 mg orally once daily on day 1; followed by 12.5 mg BID on day 2 and 3; followed by 25 mg BID on days 4-7; followed by 50 mg BID thereafter.
The rationale for making the decision and disregarding the other two options is to alter how the brain detects pain. According to the assessment, the patient is suffering from regional pain disorder. The condition causes patients to experience a low pain threshold in the brain as a result of the changes in the central nervous system and how it responds to pain (Staal et al., 2019). Consequently, patients of regional pain disorder are highly sensitive to pain due to the alterations in the neurotransmitter levels. Savella is an effective medication since it will interfere with the neurotransmitters thus reducing the sensitivity to pain. One of the effects of the drug is to inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (Stahl, 2013). The drug is also responsible for triggering an analgesic effect on the nerve endings that are responsible for detecting pain. The general impact leads to relieving pain, enhance memory and reduce the level of fatigue (Stahl, 2013). Savella is thus an effective and compatible disease with the condition of the patient.
One of the major considerations while prescribing Savella to the patient is to provide information about the drug. For example, the patient should avoid taking other drugs or alcohol while on treatment (Stahl, 2013). Drug interaction may cause negative outcomes such as fainting, dizziness or death. It is also essential to stick to the treatment plan to avoid adverse effects.
Decision #1 also involves discarding other available options such as Amitriptyline. The drug is a common antidepressant that is mostly used in the management of pain. Amitriptyline triggers side effects such as drowsiness (Chevreau et al., 2017). The drug is not effective since the patient indicated that he was taking another drug that caused drowsiness. The patient indicated he did not take the drug consistently as a result of the side effects (Chevreau et al., 2017). Prescribing the drug may thus lead to non-compliance issues which can affect the treatment of pain.
Neurontin, an anticonvulsant as well as an antiepileptic, is also another common drug for treatment and management of pain. One of the side effects of the drug is drowsiness and dizziness which can also trigger non-compliance (Goh et al., 2017). In some cases, the drug can cause tremors and viral infections. Therefore, it is essential to select an option that will be friendly to a patient.
Projected Outcomes
The projected outcome after four weeks is that the severity of pain will decrease to 3 points on a scale of 1 to 10. A significant reduction in the severity of the pain should enhance the movement of the patient with minimal support. He should also go back to work even if it is of minimal participation. Savella should also generate a stable effect that will improve the mood of a patient (Birklein et al., 2018). During treatment, it is expected that the patient may experience side effects such as increased heart palpitations, reduced quality of sleep and bouts of sweating.
Actual vs. Projected Outcomes
While the patient reports to the clinic after four weeks, he is walking, with minimal limping, without crutches as compared to the initial visit to the clinic. According to the patient, the pain had abated significantly enabling him to walk and work without using crutches. This is according to the expectations after prescribing the medication. The patient reports that, however, the pain is severe in the morning hours compared to the evening. According to the patient, the pain is at level 4 on a scale of 1 to 10 compared to the expected level 3. He also indicated that in some instances his sleep was disrupted by intense pain.
Savella also causes a common side effect which includes bouts of sweating which can disrupt the quality of sleep (Birklein et al., 2018). According to the patient, the sweating has reduced quality of sleep. Savella increases heart palpitations which are responsible for disrupting sleep and triggering bouts of sweating. The blood pressure of the patient was 147/92mmhg while the pulse rate was 110 beats/ min. No suicidal or homicidal thoughts were reported. The side effects of the drug were expected, but they will be managed as the treatment progresses.
Decision #2
The decision #2 is inspired by the outcomes of the first decision and the side effects. The patient reported significant improvement which should be maintained in the next four weeks. One of the decisions could involve reducing the dosage to relieve the patient of the increasing heart palpitations, sweating and improve the quality of sleep (Birklein et al., 2018). However, reducing the drug instantly could lead to a relapse of the pain-causing more discomfort to the patient.
Therefore, the best decision is to increase the drug at bedtime to lower the chances of waking up due to intense pain at night while reducing the dosage in the morning. Savella 25mg orally in the morning and 50mg orally at bedtime is the best option for this decision to boost positive outcomes and manage the negative outcomes (Hollander et al., 2020). Research shows that the management of pain requires a critical adjustment of drugs since the pain may occur at different times causing a diverse impact on patients.
Changing the drug is not healthy since the current prescription is already generating the desired results. According to evidence-based practice, changing the drug can lead to side effects that can undermine the recovery process (Hollander et al., 2020). The current prescription will involve balancing between treatment and suppressing the negative outcome.
Projected Outcomes
The results of decision #2 include suppressing the pain further and allowing the patient to work and walk without any assistance. Another expectation is that the patient should experience a reduction in the heart palpitations. He should also experience a better quality of sleep and a reduction in the sweating episodes (Staal et al., 2019). For example, the patient should not complain of waking up at night due to pain since bedtime medication is high. A decrease in the side effects is essential especially in improving the quality of life of a person (Staal et al., 2019).
Actual vs. Projected Outcomes
The patient reports back to the clinic after four weeks. He is still walking without crutches which is a significant milestone in the treatment of pain. He also reports that he can participate in his workplace with minimal assistance. According to the patient, the severity of the pain is still at level 4 out of 10. The same outcome was experienced four weeks ago. It is easy to understand the results since the dosing changed to manage the side effects. Evidence-based practice demonstrates that reducing the dosage can interfere with the management of pain (Chevreau et al., 2017). A provider should thus strike a critical balance between managing pain and suppressing the side effects. Additionally, the patient reported that he did not wake up at night due to pain (Chevreau et al., 2017). His quality of sleep had improved but his heart palpitations and heart rate were still evident. He also reports that episodes of sweating had reduced. Another outcome is that the patient did not experience a difference in the severity of pain in the morning and evening. He also denied suicidal or homicidal ideation.
Decision #3
Decision #3 involved continuing with the current medication and dosing since it is generating significant positive progress. One of the major expected outcomes was to help the patient to walk and work without using crutches. The decision involves prescribing Savella 25mg orally in the morning and 50mg at bedtime.
During the prescription, it is essential to educate the patient that the treatment is trying to balance between side effects and treatment. The patient should also know that the drug is one of the best options available and that other drugs cause worse side effects (Goh et al., 2017). However, upon recovery, the side effects will abate naturally. It is not advisable to introduce a new drug at this stage since it can comprise treatment (Goh et al., 2017). The provider should also caution a patient against buying medication to treat side effects. However, the provider will take a precaution of examining the heart rate and pulse rate of a patient regularly (Goh et al., 2017). The purpose of regular checkups is to ensure he is within the normal limits.

Projected Outcomes
The patient should report back to the clinic after four weeks. The results include the ability to work and walk with minimal or no support. It is expected that the patient will rate the severity of pain at 3 out of 10. A reduction in the level of pain should allow the pain to participate in daily activities without struggling (Birklein et al., 2018). It is also expected the patient will indicate they had quality sleep since they did not have to wake up in the middle of the night due to pain (Birklein et al., 2018). Another projected outcome is that the heart rate and the palpitations will have normalized without severe bouts of sweating.
The expectations should also involve educating a patient on what they should expect. One of the expected outcomes is that the pain may remain at 3 out of 10 without further subsidizing. Neuropathic pain syndrome may trigger some pain in the long-term (Birklein et al., 2018). However, the patient will participate in his workplace and walk without any support.
Actual vs. Projected Outcomes
The patient reports back to the clinic after four weeks. He reports that the pain had reduced to 3 out of 10 which is manageable. His blood pressure is at 120/84mmhg while the pulse rate is 86 beats per minute. He also reports no suicidal or homicidal ideation. The results and the projected outcomes have great similarities thus showing the treatment was effective. During the assessment, it is essential to alert him that other forms of therapy are necessary to manage the pain in the long-term (Hollander et al., 2020). For example, he needs heat and physical therapy and chiropractic.
Ethical Issues Affecting Treatment
Ethical issues affect treatment by ensuring that providers comply with various requirements to provide high-quality treatment (Stahl, 2013). One of the ethical issues is to educate the patient about the treatment to receive informed consent from them (Hollander et al., 2020). A provider should also ensure that all decisions are patient-centered with no intention to harm them. For example, the medication with the least side effects should be selected. Patient autonomy is also necessary to observe (Staal et al., 2019). Ethical requirements state that patients should not be forced or coerced. A clinician should also educate a patient and assess their condition to their safety.
Treatment and management of regional pain disorder require careful analysis and assessment. One of the best medications is Savella at various doses depending on the patient outcomes. Providers should also make decisions depending on the outcomes to improve positive results and minimize side effects. It is essential to educate a patient that they require other forms of treatment to manage the condition in the long-term. Ethical issues also affect communication and treatment. The purpose is to provide treatment to patients to ensure they carry out activities with minimal pain and support.

Birklein, F., Ajit, S. K., Goebel, A., Perez, R. S., & Sommer, C. (2018). Complex regional pain syndrome phenotypic characteristics and potential biomarkers. Nature Reviews Neurology, 14(5), 272.
Chevreau, M., Romand, X., Gaudin, P., Juvin, R., & Baillet, A. (2017). Bisphosphonates for treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials versus placebo. Joint Bone Spine, 84(4), 393-399.
Goh, E. L., Chidambaram, S., & Ma, D. (2017). Complex regional pain syndrome: a recent update. Burns & Trauma, 5(1).
Hollander, M., de Jong, J., Onghena, P., & Vlaeyen, J. W. (2020). Generalization of exposure in vivo in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 124, 103511.
Staal, J. B., Klomp, F. P., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. (2019). Pain exposure to physical therapy in complex regional pain syndrome: promising enough to warrant further investigation. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 66(1), 115.
Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

200432 Commercial Law Assessment Two

Thursday, August 20th, 2020

Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 1
200432 Commercial Law
Quarter 3 2020
Assessment 2: Problem question (essay) (1500 words) (25 marks)
This document consists of 6 pages including this page.
The answers are to be completed by an individual student. This assessment task has a
maximum of 1500 words. Students who do not submit their own work, appropriately
referenced, may be subject to student misconduct proceedings. Further information about
referencing including resources are set out below.
All students are required to learn how to use Turnitin well in advance of the due date for
submission. Difficulty using Turnitin at the last minute will not be accepted as an excuse for
missing the deadline (except in the event of a verifiable problem with our systems at the
relevant time).
Students MUST KEEP A HARD COPY of the answer submitted to Turnitin.
11 pm Friday 21 August 2020.
Your answer(s), with feedback, can be viewed on vUWS once they are released. Students will
be notified via vUWS when this occurs.
The following will be assessed in your answer:
Learning Outcomes 2 and 3:
2. Identify and demonstrate understanding of key legal concepts.
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 2
3. Apply knowledge and understanding of common law and statutory tortious, contractual
concepts in order to analyse and solve practical problems.
Presentation & style:
• Organises a clear and coherent answer
• Write clearly, accurately and grammatically
• Punctuates appropriately.
Content and knowledge:
• Identifies and explains the relevant area of common law and statutory legal systems
• Integrates relevant cases and legislation to support their answer to the legal problem
• Applies the legal principles and legislation to the facts of the legal problem
• Concludes the answer to the legal problems, including any defences, remedies or
Submission requirements:
Word length A word limit of 1500 words has been set, which excludes references. The
word limit will be strictly enforced. There will be a 1-mark penalty for every
100 words in excess of the word limit, or part thereof. For example, an
essay that is 1851 words long will be deducted 4 marks. Please
remember that this essay has been structured so that a well-considered
and scholarly written essay may be achieved within the prescribed word
Format There are strict formatting requirements with which students are required
to comply. The unit coordinator reserves the right to refuse to mark
essays that are not submitted in accordance with formatting
 Do not manipulate the margins of the page.
 Use Arial 12-point font.
 Essays must be one and a half spaced or double spaced.
 Ensure your full name and student number appears on the
footer of each page.
 Number all pages consecutively.
 Provide a reference list or bibliography.
 Answer format: Students should use the IRAC/ILAC method of
answering the question, ie, Issue, Rule/Law, Application and
 NOTE: You must use decided cases and/or statutes to support
your answers.
Referencing Referencing must be in accordance with the Harvard WesternSydU
style. See:
Students are required to keep a hard copy and electronic copy of all
written work, which is submitted. The essay must be submitted
electronically via the Commercial Law (PG) Essay Turnitin link on the
vUWS site for this unit. Please read the Turnitin Instruction Manual prior
to submission. Students may not hand in hard copies. No other method
of essay submission will be accepted. Further information in regard to the
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 3
submission of the essay will be posted in the assessment folder of the
vUWS page.
NO Essay cover sheet
Please do NOT affix an Essay Cover Sheet to your essay. By uploading a
submission into Turnitin students certify that: (1) they hold a copy of the
essay, if the original is lost or damaged; (2) no part of this essay or product
has been copied from any other student’s work or from any other source,
except where due acknowledgement is made in the essay; (3) no part of the
essay/product has been written/produced for the student by any other
person, except where collaboration has been authorised by the unit lecturer
concerned; and (4) they are aware that this work may be reproduced and
submitted to plagiarism detection software programs for the purpose of
detecting possible plagiarism ,which may retain a copy on its database for
future plagiarism checking.
Late essays must be submitted to the Late Commercial Law (PG) Essay
Turnitin link on the vUWS site for this unit. No other method of late essay
submission will be accepted.
A student, who submits a late assessment without approval for an
extension, will be penalised by 10% per day up to 10 days, i.e. marks
equal to 10% of the essay’s weight will be deducted as a ‘flat rate’ from
the mark awarded. For example, as the essay has a possible highest
mark of 25, the student’s awarded mark will have 2.5 marks deducted for
each late day. Saturday and Sunday are counted as two days.
Assessments will not be accepted after the marked assessment task has
been returned to students, who submitted the task on time.
Extension of
due date for
The essay is to be submitted via Turnitin by the due date and appointed
time. Extensions will only be granted in the event of serious illness or
serious misadventure (proved to the satisfaction of the unit coordinator)
that prevents you from completing the assessment by the due date.
If students need to apply for a short extension of time to complete an
assessment item, they should complete the ‘Request for Extension’ form
available from the vUWS website at Student Forms. This form needs to
be submitted three days before the due date of the essay. An
application for an extension does not automatically mean that an
extension will be approved. Please notify your unit coordinator via email that you have applied, as notification of e-forms can take up to 48 hours.
Where special consideration is sought for circumstances involving more
than three consecutive days or more than five days within a teaching
period, students should complete a ‘Special Consideration During
Teaching Session’ application available through eForms via MyUWS.
Marking criteria and standards:
Fail (0-49%) The student’s performance fails to satisfy the learning requirements
specified. For example, poor knowledge or application of the law, irrelevant
discussion, poor standard of presentation and inaccurate referencing.
Pass (50-
The student’s performance satisfies all of the basic learning requirements
specified and provides a sound basis for proceeding to higher-level studies
in the subject area. The student’s performance could be described as
Credit (65-
The student’s performance, in addition to satisfying all of the basic learning
requirements specified, demonstrates insight and ability in analysing and
applying relevant skills and concepts. The student’s performance could be
described as better than competent.
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 4
The student’s performance, in addition to satisfying all of the basic learning
requirements, demonstrates distinctive insight and ability in analysing and
applying relevant skills and concepts, and shows a well-developed ability
to synthesise, integrate and evaluate knowledge. The student’s
performance could be described as distinguished.
The student’s performance, in addition to satisfying all of the basic learning
requirements, demonstrates distinctive insight and ability in analysing and
applying relevant skills and concepts, and shows exceptional ability to
synthesise, integrate and evaluate the law. The student’s performance
could be described as outstanding.
QUESTION 1 15 Marks
Mojo Animals Pty Ltd owns and operates a small travelling show which it takes on
tour throughout regional Australia. It employed Pablo Ramirez as an animal trainer.
He has been working with the show for the past five years. As part of his
employment agreement with Mojo, he provides and maintains the animals and
equipment he uses in his act.
In August last year the travelling show manager, Elita Milano, insisted that Pablo
make his act more exciting. She also directed that Pablo should use her 19-year-old
nephew, Jeremy, in his act to help make it more exciting. She said that Jeremy was
a born acrobat and was very passionate about animals. She also added that
although Mojo was not prepared to employ any new person for the show, the
experience would be very helpful for Jeremy to find a job he would love in the future.
Part of Pablo’s act involved the use of elephants who paraded around the ring while
chimpanzees balanced on their backs doing various tricks. To make the act more
exciting Pablo decided that Jeremy should do handstands and other acrobatic
manoeuvres on the back of the lead elephant. The changes to the act were very
successful and Jeremy became more and more daring in his acrobatics. However,
during one of the performances Jeremy fell from the back of the elephant. He
suffered serious knee injuries and had several fractured ribs. Jeremy would not have
fallen if Pablo had provided him with a safety harness. He was unconscious when he
was rushed by ambulance to the Sunnydale Hospital. Jeremy’s mother, Lauren, who
was in the audience during Jeremy’s performance, suffered a profound shock and
developed a recognised psychiatric illness.
After admission to the hospital, Jeremy underwent a major surgery of knee
replacement. During this surgery the surgeon caused significant damage to his
nerves and incorrectly inserted the prosthesis which rendered him unable to walk.
Jeremy and Lauren have approached you for advice as to who they can sue in these
circumstances and the likelihood of success if they sue in the tort of negligence.
Advise the parties.

Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 5
QUESTION 2 10 Marks
John and Natalie are a married couple, who wished to purchase a country motel
business. They had no previous experience in motels or in running a business of any
kind. They attended a seminar at which experts from the motel industry and
professional people spoke of its brighter aspects but also warned of the importance
of occupancy rate to financial viability. John had worked for many years in the
accounts payables department of a large company. Although not a qualified
accountant his duties provided him with bookkeeping experience, some
understanding of figure work and costing. Natalie previously worked as a receptionist
for some nine or more years. They had available $40,000 together with the proceeds
of sale of their family home.
After an initial contact over some other proposition which did not come to anything,
Mrs Wentworth offered John and Natalie, on behalf of a Mr Holgate (the seller) the
business at Burradoone for $100,000 of which only $15,000 was for goodwill.
Early in their encounter Mrs Wentworth told John and Natalie that she had owned
motels herself and had a lot of experience in the motel business and that she would
find them a motel. She told them that she had sold a lot of motels, had not sold a bad
one, and could help them by recommending a finance broker. John told her that he
would also be “relying on an accountant’s opinion”.
The motel at Burradoone comprised 15 units which were newly built by the seller,
together with a shop. The seller had operated the business for a mere 12 weeks.
The reason for the sale was that Mr Holgate was recently diagnosed with cancer and
was severely affected by his illness.
Mr Holgate owned the land and had built the shop and motel encouraged by the
demand expressed to him by tourists. However, at the time of the sale of the
business it was operating unprofitably. All the figures were disclosed to John and
John and Natalie were told and knew that the business had to be built up to be a
In the promotional material disseminated by John and Natalie after taking
possession, Burradoone was described as “offering activities such as bowls, tennis,
golf, a winery and day trips to historic and quaint places. Burradoone is a quiet little
rural town nestled on the arm of Lake Edon amidst some of New South Wales’ most
beautiful countryside. Lake Edon offers a sporting paradise of fishing, skiing, sailing
and swimming. The beautiful countryside provides scenic drives, horse riding and
bush walking.”
The area had all these attractions or at least might be thought to have had them. The
trouble was that at the time the business was purchased there was very little water in
Lake Edon.
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 6
Before signing the contract Mrs Wentworth told John and Natalie that buying the
business was a once in a lifetime opportunity, that Mr Holgate would not be selling it
save for his ill health, that the business had year-round trade because December to
February was a holiday season, April was Easter time, then there were school
holidays. She told them the business had great potential, that if she was not
otherwise currently engaged she would consider buying it herself, that it was a
bargain basement price and that once you get going it will be a gold mine.
Unfortunately within six months John and Natalie cannot afford to pay the outgoings
let alone make some money to live on.
Advise John and Natalie fully of their chances of pursuing negligence claims only
against Mrs Wentworth.


Saturday, July 25th, 2020


(REDD) Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
REDD is a project that was first negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in the year 2005. The primary objective or mission of coming up with the plan was to be able to mitigate all the cases of climate change by ensuring that there was a reduction in the emissions that came in the form of greenhouse gases. This involves taking part in the enhancement of forest management especially in the countries that are still developing. Some decisions made under REDD were made witnessed in the year 2013 and ended in the year 2015 at a time when they had to put them down in the rulebook.
International Efforts in Strengthening Climate Governance and Finance
Researchers have conducted studies to find out the extent to which the forests have been degraded and the rate at which the greenhouse emissions are affecting the environment. The results show that about 29% of the greenhouse gases are emitted yearly, and this affects the climate change rate which will not be easy to control if it gets out of hand (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). In that case, the intention of reducing the emissions and also taking part in better land use has been a way of trying to meet all the objectives that have been set by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The idea and issue of international climate governance have become complex as most countries are now finding ways of ensuring that the climate is conducive to human survival. Many usually are not sure about the initiatives that they have put in place especially when they realize that the funds are not enough to make everything possible. For instance, some countries have opted to make use of regulatory instruments which are backed up by some market-based solutions that include the use of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (Gabriele, 1996, p2281).
Some of the other efforts that have put in place to deal with the issue of climate governance and finance have been seen the proliferation of some specialized institutions that operate on an international basis while at the same dealing with the issue of climate change. In that case, there have been institutional fragmentations to ensure that each of them has a mission to accomplish when it comes to getting funds what will be used in providing an assurance that the greenhouses gases are reduced to a great extent. In addition to this, most international institutions are now beginning to realize that climate change is a serious issue and therefore needs to be put in place for sustainable development (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). This involves taking part in agriculture and also asking for more action from other sectors.
The other international efforts when it comes to climate governance have been experienced in the form of partnerships that are created daily in various countries and foreign clubs. The main aim, in this case, is to mitigate the instances of climate change and also learn how to adapt to climate-resilient development. The transitional actions that come in this form are therefore aiming at doing global governance of the climate and also making sure that all the negations that were established under UNFCCC are fulfilled. This comes because numbers of scholars have realized that partnerships and fragmentation of polycentric approaches have become more coherent in top-down initiative or by the use of monocentric governance systems.
The international efforts that focus on climate finance can be looked from the perspective of bodies such as UN which has sections that deal with the funds that are collected and aside from the management of climate. The most effective action, in this case, was seen at the time when there was a meeting in Paris to discuss some of the ways the climate would be managed by not only making practical actions by also collecting funds on how to make everything real and possible. In that case, some countries have set aside a kitty where funds are collected after every month to be able to implement all the initiatives that have been put in place when it comes to governance of climate change. For instance, the International Climate Change (ICC) committees have tried hard to make sure that countries are self-sufficient financially so that any command or rule that comes from the UN can be fulfilled without delay or compromise of any nature.
The past few years have shown the emergence of different forms of transnational climate actions which have raised some controversies and questions on whether the fragmentations that come due to climate change governance are real and applicable. This has led to some conflicts that arise between regimes that complain of the infinity that comes out of the transactional costs. There are also some Non-State actions that have led to public response acts that are currently seen to take part in unwarranted governance and privatization of all sorts (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). Therefore, there has been a need to be able to better all the transnational and international bodies as a way of encouraging the non-state actors to be able to make all the contributions that they have towards governance of the climate and making it be at the right state and nature.
Some scholars have been able to come up with international suggestions on how the climate can be governed and also financed for a better future. For instance, Gabriele (1996) stated that there was a need to come up with a registry that would be used to recognize all the non-state efforts when it comes to climate change mitigation initiatives. They also added that there is a need to identify actions of the small bodies that take part in creating awareness on some of the ways the climate can be kept at the right state without having to cut down trees that would, later on, leave the land bare. The idea of sharing knowledge and also maintaining a legit form of transparency was also a suggestion that came from the scholars as they needed to see an internationally recognizable act concerning climate change financing.
After all the suggestions were put across, others such as Bashmakov (1996) stated that all the registry made out of recognizing the non-state claimed governance bodies should be embedded to form a better or comprehensive framework that will be able to mobilize further actions. The new bodies will then be able to take part in information exchange and creating networks that will help them in getting funds for issues related to climate change mitigation. The bodies will also be a partisan of ensuring that the quality of the data is high and will be at the best position to verify the subnational initiatives that have been put in place as a way of taking part in international climate governance.
Potential Shaping of Future of Climate and Clean Energy
The international efforts aimed at mitigating climate change seem to be beneficial when looked from the perspective of the future implications. The efforts have been put across to be able to have clean energy and also a climate that is conducive to human survival. Some of the initiatives that have been put in place are in the form of Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement and also the REDD initiatives (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). All countries have their ways of implementing these initiatives, and there is a lot of determination to see that everything will be successful. Many scholars desired to have a picture of the way the climate will be in the future with most of them having speculations of the forms of energy is clean, and also the climate change process is lower than they have been.
The efforts will, therefore, shape the future of climate and clean energy making everyone to adapt to the initiative that will be put in place. The future will have a climate characteristic that is not vulnerable to all the harmful activities that lead to depletion of resources. This means that there will be a reduced rate of sea-level encroachment and also the issues of food insecurity will be alleviated to a great extent. For instance, all the REDD initiatives will have a positive impact in shaping the future of climate and having efficient forms of energy (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). The initiates will lead to having a climate that can be able to support all the livelihoods, take care of all the different points of the eco-systems and also ensure that there is a reservation of the different parts of biodiversity. This means there will be more discussions conducted between REDD and all the initiatives that have been set aside to increase the number of research projects in that line.
UNFCCC Efforts Based on a “Bottom-up” Focus
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) is a treaty that was put in place in the year 1992. The body was formed to be able to take part in the stabilization of all the different types of greenhouse gases and to reduce the effects that the gases would pose on the future people’s livelihoods. This was in the race to ensure that anthropogenic interference of the climate system was reduced and taken to sustainable levels. After the adoption of the treaty, it went ahead to ensure that there were no binding limits when it came to the use and emission of greenhouse gasses from the various counties that were a part of it. The treaty works alongside other treaties to make sure that the initiative is a success and that those who go against its provision are punished using the set standards.
UNFCCC has some efforts when it comes to implementing all the motives and intentions of REDD. The body had the determination of making sure that all the greenhouse gases were limited and replaced with gases that were clean and had no effect on biodiversity. Therefore in the race to make this possible, it was able to come up with Kyoto Protocol which was a body that was supposed to set targets on how the developing countries would be able to follow all the rules that are related to climate change.
UNFCCC also came up with Intended Nationally Determined Contributions body as a way of still meeting the objectives of the treaty. The body, in this case, was supposed to ensure that all the measures were put in place as a way of reducing emission and also doing away with events of deforestation were legit and acceptable by the law. This means that all countries were provided with the freedom to ensure that all the climate mitigation measures were appropriate from a national perspective. Also, they were supposed to be flexible and also adaptable after being tailored in all major sectors.
UNFCCC has been on the front line to make sure that all the matters regarding climate change are implemented in the best way possible without leaving aside any suggestions that seem to be factual and legit. In that case, the other efforts that it has made regarding climate change and having clean energy has been based on the creation of awareness. The awareness has been on making all the stakeholders and government institutions to realize that there is a problem that needs to be solved and if it gets out of hand, then the future will not be better for anyone (Bashmakov, 1996, p58). The awareness programs have been aired on televisions via different media houses, and there have been campaigns and days set aside to make everyone realize the benefits of mitigating climate change.
UNFCCC has also tried to make a mainstream of its objectives concerning all the national planning and development processes. All countries have the mission of developing and getting to a high status and industrialization is the order of the day and technology is the main driving force of the economy. As all these initiatives are being put in place, UNFCCC wants the officials and people responsible for implementing the ideas of having clean gases being emitted into the air at all times. The buildings and industries that are coming up from the planning processes are supposed to be able to put in place mechanisms that will do away with the greenhouse gases. The plans that the government and stakeholders are developing are supposed to do away with the issues of deforestation. There are better ways of getting land to construct buildings, and they include reclaiming abandoned land and rehabilitating them to a state that can be used by all.
The efforts that have been put in place by UNFCCC include the creation of better and stable links between national and subnational governments that have plans oriented to climate change. Most of the subnational governments have been in the front line to make sure that the initiatives and programs related to climate change mitigation are handled using the available resources (Bashmakov, 1996, p50). They act as the executing bodies since they are much closer to the industries and sections that tend to release too much greenhouse gases. For instance, the industries that take part in the processing of coal products emit too much carbon dioxide, and this poses a great danger to those who are living in such areas.
There have been some climate policies set aside by UNFCCC, and most of them need to be implemented on a monthly basis. UNFCCC, therefore, makes this possible by using personal and agencies working in the climate change mitigation departments to be able to make everything a reality. A lot of teamwork is needed in making such initiatives possible because they are worldwide. For instance, the policies have been facing a problem of resource constraints which need the national governments to intervene to provide finances and the necessary support in that matter. The amount of time required for this to take place is determined by the body as it has all the details concerning the nature and extent of environmental destruction.
UNFCCC has been directing the newly allocated funds to the all the developing countries so that they can be in the position of supporting the initiatives that have been put in place when it comes to climate change (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). All the industrialized nations have been attached to an agreement that was formed under the convention to support all the activities that involve in climate change mitigating concerning the developing counties. They have therefore been able to offer financial support to the countries since they cannot depend on themselves. The financial aid is done by making use of grants and loans that are managed by Global Environment Facility. The industrialized countries have also tried to share all that they have regarding technicality so that the developing countries can be at per with the essay writers goals set in that line.
UNFCCC also ensures that all the developing and industrialized countries submit a report on their climate change initiatives and measures that they have put in place with respect whatever has been set out in the Kyoto Protocol (Baranov, 1994, p80). The countries are also urged to avail a report of the inventory based on the greenhouse missions while using 1990 as the base year. This means that each state is supposed to show an improvement whenever it is submitting a report. All the developing countries are supposed to adopt all the climate change initiatives and also be able to assess the impact of being in line with the protocols that have been set. Those counties that show positive progress are supposed to share the same strategies with countries that have not been able to meet the established standards of climate change mitigation. UNFCCC acknowledges the fact that there are countries that are vulnerable to climate change and therefore makes sure that it has come up with special calls that will help in dealing with the consequences.
Standards, Methodologies, Empirical Evidence and Science Content.
Climate change mitigation refers to the actions that have been put in place to reduce the extent or the long-term effects of the transformations in climate. Mitigation involves cutting the activities of the humans when it comes to the emission of greenhouse gasses. Mitigation is a move that many organization and individuals have been trying to achieve since the long-term effects of the activity are always not friendly (Baranov, 1994, p80). Some nations have always tried to increase the number of carbon sinks by taking part in reforestation activities. This is according to the needs and demands of REDD which focuses on reduction in deforestation.
REDD is also on the notion that people should find a way of adapting to the global warming so that they can be able to manage all the impacts that come along with it. Global warming has been proved to be an irreversible process, and that means people have to be ready to face the consequence of the process. The best way to do this is by making sure that there are better ways of being in line with the requirements and needs to identify the factors that will lead to its reduction. For example, some nations have gone ahead to construct dikes as a way of responding to the sea levels that are increasing rapidly.
Some of the other climate mitigation approaches include doing away with all the activities the lead to the excessive emission of carbon that entails the nuclear energy and adopting better and renewable sources of energy that such as solar energy and wind energy. There is also the expansion of forests to ensure that the carbon sinks are many and that the entire carbons dioxide is removed from the atmosphere (Baranov, 1994, p85). The forest is the best carbon sinks, and therefore all governments should try and come up with a way in which they can be able to maintain high standards of the environment. Energy efficiency has been a better a way of mitigating climate change because it means the people will be using the current sources of energy in suitable ways. Buildings should be insulated as a way of promoting energy efficiency especially when the process of geoengineering is put in place.
UNFCCC has been known to be the primary treaty when it comes to climate mitigation, and that means it should be embraced and all the rules that it avails should be implied as fast as possible. The climate is changing at a faster rate than the speed that people are applying to take it down. For instance, in the year 2010, all those who had agreed to be parties of UNFCCC came up with a campaign that was supposed to reduce the global warming effect to below 2 degree Celsius which was relative amount while focusing on the pre-industrial levels (Baranov, 1994, p89).
According to scientists, the 2 degree Celsius target can only be attained if the annual global emissions are taken down before the year 2020. The year 2050 should have the emissions being at levels that are 50% lower than they have been over the past the ten decades (Baranov, 1994, p90). Even though all these initiatives are already under an implementation process, analysis from the United Nations Environment Programme stated that the policies are too weak and therefore meeting the target will not be an easy task. These claims came after research that they conducted to determine the number of countries that are in line with the initiative. They realized that only 5% of the nations that signed the treaty are doing all that they can to make everything a success. Global warming is affecting the whole planet, and that means all the countries should be participants when it comes to bringing it down. Some companies are now providing volunteering services to make sure that climate change mitigation is a daily activity and it is taken as a regular event that people should accept as part of their life.
Human activities that entail the burning of coal and different components of the oil are the main factors that increase the rate at which the earth is becoming warm. The gasses that trap heat in the atmosphere will keep on growing so long as humans are taking part in activities that promote them. The gases will remain constant without any change because industrialization is real and people are keeping on cutting down trees as they are looking for space to construction companies and residential houses. The impact of the warming is common in many places, and some people have lost their lives due to the adverse effects that it poses (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 6). There are also those who have had the destruction of property as a result of global warming. The global warming has led to increased floods and landslides, and therefore many have fallen victims of such acts. Companies that take part in ground-breaking are also increasing the vulnerability of the earth is prone to earthquakes. Earthquakes are known to have adverse effects as they lead to many people losing their properties.
Many organizations are trying to reduce the impacts of climate change, but the real thing is that it is an issue or matter which cannot be avoided at all. The most severe effects of the process can only be avoided if people decide to live according to the set standards. The time that is available to make all the changes is limited as the number of industries is also growing every day. This means that the consequences of global warming and climate change are also getting too high levels. Some vehicles are currently being manufactured, and they seem to be ecologically friendly because they do not affect the environment with the emissions (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 6). They make use of clean gas and also use renewable sources of energy like solar. The problem is that the companies and organizations that are producing the vehicles are also emitting the greenhouse gases as they are taking part in the manufacturing processes.
The climate has been changing over the past few years, and there are some factors that have been used to show the kind of activity that is going on. There is climate change mitigation programs have been set up to make sure that the changes do not get out of hand. Those who are responsible for the changes in climate are not able to find out some of the ways they can make the environment to get back to the original state since they lack the best initiatives to put in place.
From empirical research conducted by NASA, there was evidence of climate change, and this was shown by the warming of the entire atmosphere. The greenhouse gases are leading to global warming while the trees that have been cut down due to land expansion activities that have left the land bear and food insecurity has become a significant problem. The global rise of temperatures is one of the empirical evidence that the climate change is real and is taking place at a fast rate. The estimated surface temperature of the planet is about 2.0 degrees Fahrenheit, and this has been rising from the 19th century (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 12). This change has been driven by the rising amounts of carbon dioxide. There are also other human emissions that have facilitated climate change, and they include chlorofluorocarbons.
The past 36 years has experienced significant warming cases with the year 2001 being on top of the list when it comes to the number of emissions. 2016 was also among the warmest years except June which is commonly known as the coldest months of the year. The oceans are also becoming warm, and this is another indication of the fact that climate change is rapid and is getting to uncontrollable heights. The oceans have taken much of the heat to a state where it is currently standing at 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit.
The shirking ice sheets are also a sign of global warming where Greenland and even the Antarctic ice sheets have ended up showing a decrease in mass. NASA availed some data that showed Greenland had lost over 250 cubic kilometers of ice between the year 2002 and the year 2006. On the other hand, Antarctic lost over 152 cubic kilometers of ice in the same years. The loss of the ice is a clear indication that they are melting away due to the warmth and hence the ocean levels are going to rise (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 7). The process of glacial retreat is taking place in some raised lands such as the Alpos, Alaska, Andes, Himalayas and also in some parts of Africa.
The snow cover has also decreased in that the climate has become warm and they are also melting away to give room for the heat increasing at an uncontrollable rate. According to empirical evidence coming from the satellite, the Northern Hemisphere shows a decrease in the ice cover as this has been happening rapidly over the past five decades. The sea level is also rising rapidly, and this can be seen from the 8 inches rise over the past few centuries. This is followed by the arctic seas which have shown a decline due to the high temperatures. Ocean acidification is the clear proof that climate change needs to undergo a mitigation process to make it get back to a normal or original state. The industrial revolution led to an increased level of acidity in the surface oceans by 30 percent (Government of Russia 1995, p56). The fact that humans are taking part in activities that lead to the emission of more carbon dioxide shows that the acidity is not likely to go down.
Employ Case Studies
There have some case studies conducted to check on the rate at which countries and regions in Russia have adopted the climate change initiatives since it is the most affected when it comes to such events. Russia has been trying hard to comply with the set standards and all the protocols that aim at mitigating issues of climate change since it is among the most industrialized nations (Gritsevich, 1996, p9). A case study on An Industrial Energy Efficient Program at the “Moscabelmet” Company in Russia is an example of some of the ways the country has been trying to mitigate matters related to climate change.
According to the case study, there is a need to maintain focus on energy efficiency having in mind that it is an important issue when it comes to economic health concerning industrial enterprise. The Russia enterprises have been able to increase the rate at which they are maintaining energy efficiency to be able to gain economic stability and rapid growth in various sectors. Moscabelmet is a company in Russia known in the production of aluminium and copper commodities. The company has over 1500 workers, and each of them is working in a sector that makes use of energy in the most efficient manner (Gritsevich, 1996, p9). The company is energy-intensive, and that means it consumes over 55 million kWh and 549,000 Gj of heat. This high consumption of heat energy to the depletion of natural resources as it tries to maintain its relevance and to meet the demand of the people as much as it can.
The company has been promoting the activities of climate change mitigation by coming up with an information system that is used in running all the energy consuming facilities. Also, the company also came up with an energy monitoring system so that it can be able to stop areas that seem to use a lot of energy at a time. The company has also maintained the fact that people are supposed to use vehicles that are emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere while they are heading to work. The main aim is to make sure that it acts as an example to all other countries and companies that have the intention of mitigating climate change (Millhone, 1997, p34). The company also takes part in an evaluation of how it has been able to make the moves of climate change mitigation a success. The assessments make it able to identify the areas that need an adjustment and also compare it with provisions of UNFCCC.
After taking part in such activities, the company has been able to make the country to gain economically. Some of the improvements that have been seen in Russia after putting in place the climate change mitigation programs are that most of the companies have been able to reduce the production process. This is where small amounts of money are needed to make sure that the plants running the heat producing machines are replaced (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). There is also a reduction in the production of water that usually comes from the industries. There has been the installation of return water temperature controls when it comes to the optimization of hot water. Almost all shops in the industries have been installed with machines that control the energy intensity as a way of using energy more efficiently.
The country has also experienced some environmental benefits after putting in place all the initiatives and ideas that came from Moscablemet company. These benefits can be observed when it comes to the emission of greenhouse and cutting down of trees in the process of deforestation. There has been a reduction in the emissions as they are only indirectly taking place since the annual consumption of energy in the firms has also gone down. The reduction in the use of consumption of potable water has also led to a decrease in the discharge of waste and other materials that are known to pollute the environment. At the moment, Moscabelmet is known as the model company when it comes to the reduction of cost and emission of greenhouse gasses in the country.
Russia intends to take over the technique that has been used by the company so that it can expand it further. This mesa that it realized the benefits of having a clean nation that has no polluted environments and therefore wants to maintain it. For the project to be expanded the county has had to put in place some measures. For instance, it has to do an energy audit of all the places that seem to be experiencing great cases of pollution and emissions. The audits will also cut across areas that are vulnerable to deforestation and environment degradation. There will be a need to ensure that all the energy monitoring systems are developed and implemented as per the set rules and standards. The enterprise energy will also need to be restructured depending on the findings that will come out of the audits that will be conducted in the year. The operating regimes will need to be changed to be able to install those that have been found to be efficient. An automated energy control system will need to be introduced to be able to monitor all the changes that are taking place in the various fields of operation.
Even though there is a need to expand the various fields of operation hence it comes to climate change mitigation; some challenges might be first in making it a success. One of the difficulties, in this case, would be lack of funding since most of the climate change mitigation programs need a lot of financial needs. Lack of experience is the other barrier that implements the mitigation process to be difficult (Goic, 2011, p878). There are instances when the government needs to provide people with incentives so that they can be motivated and take part in the activities that help in reduction of environmentally unfriendly gases. Without the incentives, the government is not likely to be able to make the public to behave as per the rules that have been drafted.
In conclusion, for the world to have a touch of sustainable future, it will have to first focus on the economic incentives which are likely to reconcile with the environment and the nature of human well-being. There should be the promotion of conservation efforts that will help in ensuring that there is an aspect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). Most of the economic forces have led to an increased level of emission, and that has facilitated to over 20% of the greenhouse gases. Theretofore there is a need to embrace REDD because it seeks to address all the problems that have been caused by emission and deforestation activities. This means that forests are supposed to be valued as ecosystems that are living and those that are used to sink all the carbon that is already in the atmosphere. Conservation is supposed to be applied in almost all areas because it is commonly known to be an economic activity which is available and helpful to the environment.
The other reason as to why people should embrace the provision of REDD is the fact that it is a way of getting only to handle emissions that are verifiable and that also promotes activities that benefit the forest and the people who are depending on the forests as a source of income and living. REDD can alleviate the crisis at hand in that all the forests that have been cut down will be restored to create more room for carbon sinking options. In short, there is a need to embrace this initiative because it works on the perspective of reducing leakage of the emissions, provides permanence in environmental control and also adds some of the options that people can use to meet or attain the same goals without affecting the ecological biodiversity.

Baranov, B 1994, “Automation Control System and Electric Power Quality Check at Moscabelmet” In Energy Efficiency, vol. 1, no.3.
Bashmakov, II 1996, System of Institutional Measures to Stimulate Energy Efficiency in Russia as a Part of the GHG Mitigation Strategy, CENEf, Moscow.
Center for Energy Efficiency 1996, Russian Energy Picture, July-September CENEf, Moscow.
Government of Russia 1995. Energy Strategy of Russia. Major Provisions. Moscow.
Gritsevich, I 1996, “Concept of Russian Federation Transition to Sustainable Development.” In Energy Efficiency, vol. 3, no. 10.
Millhone, J P 1997, Report to Joint Coordinating Committee on the US-Russian Climate Change Country Study. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Gabriele CH 1996, “Detecting Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change with an Optimal Fingerprint Method,” Journal of Climate, 2281-2306
Goic, R 2011, “A Review of Climate Change, mitigation and adaptation.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol 16, Issue 1, pp 878-897

Program Design & Problem Solving Assignment-02: Data Structure

Monday, July 6th, 2020

TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
Input Standard Input & File
Output Standard Output
Problem Description
Swallow Reef, also known as Pulau Layang-Layang, is an oceanic atoll of the Spratly Islands
administered by Malaysia, which is situated approximately 300 kilometres northwest of Kota Kinabalu,
Sabah. The atoll is about 7 km long and 2 km wide. There is a lighthouse on the atoll that sends weather
and security conditions periodically to the mainland. Due to the long distance and atmospheric
surroundings which are not conducive to modern telecommunications, the only means of
communication is by using Morse Code over a low powered radio transceiver.
Morse code is a method used in telecommunication to encode text characters as standardized sequences
of two different signal durations, called dots and dashes or dits and dahs. Morse code is named
after Samuel Morse, an inventor of the telegraph. The International Morse Code encodes the 26 English
letters A through Z, some non-English letters, the Arabic numerals (ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
and 9 ) and small set of punctuation and procedural signals (prosigns). There is no distinction between
upper and lower case letters. The following figure shows a list of Morse codes for characters, symbols
and Arabic numerals.
Figure 1 – Morse Code – Letters conversion
Morse Code needs trained and experienced officers to be able to communicate efficiently and not easy
to obtain as Morse Code usage is getting less and lesser by time. Thus it is best to have a program that
can encode and decode Morse messages so that any officer can read or send them in plain text. Your
task is to create the java program to help officer to encode and decode the code Morse. You must use
appropriate data structure for all Morse code (as in Fig 1) by ensuring that each code is unique.
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
Although in real life, the codes are send as sounds, in this program, dots are written as “.” and
dashes/dahs are “-“. Letters are separated by a space, while one word to another are separated by two
The program should print a menu to perform three main process; sending, receiving and display all
letters and Morse code.
i. The sending part should be able to encode or convert any letters in Fig 1 to Morse Code and
ready to be sent across to the other side. Every message must starts with “VV” or “…- …-” and
ends with “EOM” or “. — –” . To ensure the integrity of each message, a transmission summary
must be appended after the “EOM” marker. The summary must contain:
1. Number of lines in the message.
2. Number of words
3. Number of Alphabets
4. Number of Symbols
5. Number of numbers (Arabic numerals)
An “EOT” marker must be put at the end of the transmission summary.
ii. The receiving part should be able to decode the Morse message and transmission summary into
readable letters. For the verification purposes, a summary analysis will be generated based on
the decoded message to be compared with the transmission summary from the sender. The
comparison will print out “Consistent Summary” if the two messages equal, otherwise print
“Inconsistent Summary”.
iii. Display all letters and Morse Code part should print out all letters with Morse code in the
format of 5 output in a row using one of the data structure traversal method. (Hint: use format
“t” in the print statement to make space in between output)
Sample Input-output table shows the example of valid input with the corresponding output. Your
program need to consider the invalid input.
You can refer to any online link to check the result of decode and encode the Morse Code. (example: )
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
Sample Input/output
Input Output
Sunny sky
wind 40 knots
temp 35C
…- …-
… ..- -. -. -.– … -.- -.–
.– .. -. -.. ….- —– -.- -. — – …
– . — .–. …– ….. -.-.
. — —
…– .—-
. — –
1. Send Morse Message
2. Receive Morse Message
3. Print Letters and Morse Code
4. Exit
Input code:
…- …-
… ..- -. -. -.– … -.- -.–
.– .. -. -.. ….- —– -.- -. — – …
– . — .–. …– ….. -.-.
. — —
…– .—-
. — –
5 9 31 0 4
Result: Consistent Summary
1. Send Morse Message
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
2. Receive Morse Message
3. Print Letters and Morse Code
4. Exit
Input code:
3 5 ….. H …. 4 ….- S … V …-
3 …– I .. F ..-. U ..- ? ..–..
2 ..— E . L .-.. ” .-..-. R .-.
. .-.-.- A .- P .–. @ .–.-. W .–
J .— ‘ .—-. 1 .—- 6 -…. – -….-
B -… = -…- D -.. X -..- N -.
C -.-. ; -.-.-. ! -.-.– K -.- ( -.–.
) -.–.- Y -.– T – 7 –… Z –..
, –..– G –. Q –.- M — : —…
8 —.. O — 9 —-. 0 —–
1. Send Morse Message
2. Receive Morse Message
3. Print Letters and Morse Code
4. Exit
Input code:
4 Bye dits-dahs..
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
Your report should include the following information submitted in 2 files:
File Named & format file Details Percentage
1 _File1.pdf 1. Describes all data structures
used in dits-dahs problem.
2. Illustrates the structure of
Morse Code after insert all the
letters used.
3. Describes all classes used in
dits-dahs (list all attributes and
methods involve in each class
and state the objective).
4. Algorithm for:
i. Main method
ii. Encode method
iii. Decode method
iv. Display all letters and
Morse code.
5. Any assumptions that you
6. Input-Output Screen short
10% Markah
2 _File2.dat 7. Data Files
8. Full Java codes of dits-dahs. 20% Markah
Jumlah 30%
Zipped all files and submit to UKMFolio by 3/7/2020 before 5pm.

INFV320 Final Project

Monday, July 6th, 2020

6/24/2020 INFV320FinalProject 1/4
Learning Objective
This assignment is the designated final exam. You need to use what you have learned to approach the problem.
The assignment is revised based on a capstone project composed by Professor Odile Wolf.
Problem Overview
You will be creating a Python program saved in a file named “”. The Python program will read
text from a file named “wireShark.txt” and display the frames with essential frame data. For each frame, you
need to extract and present its frame number, the source and destination addresses, as well as the frame type.
The frame number always appears after “Frame” at the beginning of each frame in the document. For either
source or destination address, it is composed of 12 hexadecimal digits, every two of which are separated by
colon. The address examples could be like below:
The frame type is a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-level protocol in the data fields.
A common value is 0x800 that describes the IPv4 protocol.
For example, the first frame in the given “wireShark.txt” file is presented below. Note that here I highlight the data
fields that you need to extract from each frame in the document.
6/24/2020 INFV320FinalProject 2/4
Frame 1 : 372 bytes on wire (2976 bits), 372 bytes captured (2976 bits) on interfac
e 0
Ethernet II, Src: WesternD_08:dd:b1 ( 00:14:ee:08:dd:b1 ), Dst: IPv4mcast_7f:ff:fa (
01:00:5e:7f:ff:fa )
Destination: IPv4mcast_7f:ff:fa (01:00:5e:7f:ff:fa)
Address: IPv4mcast_7f:ff:fa (01:00:5e:7f:ff:fa)
…. ..0. …. …. …. …. = LG bit: Globally unique address (factory de
…. …1 …. …. …. …. = IG bit: Group address (multicast/broadcast)
Source: WesternD_08:dd:b1 (00:14:ee:08:dd:b1)
Address: WesternD_08:dd:b1 (00:14:ee:08:dd:b1)
…. ..0. …. …. …. …. = LG bit: Globally unique address (factory de
…. …0 …. …. …. …. = IG bit: Individual address (unicast)
Type: IPv4 ( 0x0800 )
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src:, Dst:
0100 …. = Version: 4
…. 0101 = Header Length: 20 bytes (5)
Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP: CS0, ECN: Not-ECT)
Total Length: 358
Identification: 0xfe2a (65066)
Flags: 0x4000, Don’t fragment
Time to live: 4
Protocol: UDP (17)
Header checksum: 0xc505 [validation disabled]
[Header checksum status: Unverified]
User Datagram Protocol, Src Port: 35064, Dst Port: 1900
Simple Service Discovery Protocol
No. Time Source Destination Protocol Length
2 0.307821 SSDP 422
6/24/2020 INFV320FinalProject 3/4
After analyzing the frames in the text file, your program should display all frames with the essential data. Below
is the result that should be displayed by running your program based on the given text file:
Frame 1, Src:00:14:ee:08:dd:b1, Des:01:00:5e:7f:ff:fa, Type:0x0800
Frame 2, Src:00:14:ee:08:dd:b1, Des:01:00:5e:7f:ff:fa, Type:0x0800
Frame 3, Src:cc:2f:71:3e:ca:a1, Des:14:91:82:36:7a:8d, Type:0x0800
Frame 4, Src:cc:2f:71:3e:ca:a1, Des:14:91:82:36:7a:8d, Type:0x0800
Frame 5, Src:cc:2f:71:3e:ca:a1, Des:14:91:82:36:7a:8d, Type:0x0800
Frame 6, Src:14:91:82:36:7a:8d, Des:cc:2f:71:3e:ca:a1, Type:0x0800
Frame 7, Src:14:91:82:36:7a:8d, Des:cc:2f:71:3e:ca:a1, Type:0x0800
Note that if there are more frames given in the input file “wireShark.txt”, your Python program should be able to
extract all the frames with the expected presentation. (That is, you cannot hard code the output based on the
given file! When I test your code at my side, I might use a different input file that has more than the frames
provided to you.)
Hints and Notes
To approach the problems, you may need to use certain methods and functions to analyze and manipulate the
lines in the given text file. For example, you may need to find if a substring, such as “Frame” or “Type:”, appears
on a line. You may also need to split a line into multiple parts, or slice a string in order to get a substring of it.
Below I provide some Python code examples to provide you clues on which methods/functions you could use
and how to use them.
6/24/2020 INFV320FinalProject 4/4
In [27]:
#How to check if a substring is on a line? Hint: use the find method
seedStr = “Internet Protocol Version 4”
a_str = “Internet Protocol Version 4, Src:, Dst:″
x = a_str.find(seedStr)
#should print 0
x_str =”(I am Li Xu)”
x = x_str.find(seedStr)
#should print -1
#How to extract a substring from a line? Hint: slice the string!
x = x_str[1:len(x_str)-1]
#should print “I am Li Xu”
#How to split a line into several parts? Hint: use split method!
a_str = “Internet Protocol Version 4, Src:, Dst:”
a_parts = a_str.split(“, “)
#should print [‘Internet Protocol Version 4’, ‘Src:’, ‘Dst:
x = a_parts[0]
words = x.split() #default split token is white space
#should print [‘Internet’, ‘Protocol’, ‘Version’, ‘4’]
You need to turn in your Python file “” to the Assignments folder for the final project.
I am Li Xu
[‘Internet Protocol Version 4’, ‘Src:’, ‘Dst:’]
[‘Internet’, ‘Protocol’, ‘Version’, ‘4’]

Micro fabrication is generally the fabrication

Monday, July 6th, 2020

 Micro fabrication is generally the fabrication of the miniature structures of micrometer scales and other smaller unit thus becoming a general term that is used to refer to various engineering terminologies such as semiconductor processing among others.
 The micro fabrication process is made of repeated processes such as deposition of film, pattering of the film into various desired features and etching/removing of the undesired patterns in the film.
 Dry etching on the other hand is divided into three separate classes namely sputter etching, reactive ion etching and vapor phase etching.
 Micro forming is another fabrication process of micro electro mechanical (MEMS) parts or structures with two or more dimensions ranging from sub millimeter and above the process involves micro cutting, micro stamping and micro extrusion which have led to development of industrial- and experimental-grade manufacturing tools.
 Micro fabricated devices are usually formed over or in a thicker support substrate for electronic applications, semiconducting substrates such as silicon wafers.
 Thus micro fabrication is a technology that is widely in application in production of various modern devices used in making the mankind environment conducive and more comfortable for existence.

[1] Madou, M. J. (2012). Fundamentals of microfabrication and nanotechnology: Volume II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Differences between Permanent and Temporary Staff Essay

Monday, July 6th, 2020

Differences between Permanent and Temporary Staff

Research question
What are the differences between temporary and permanent staff in terms of their job satisfaction and how their health is catered for? Who are the best types of employees to employ?
This proposal aims at undertaking an extensive research on the best type of staff to employ, either on the permanent or temporary basis and which type of staff is more satisfied with their job and health welfare while at the company using both theory and experiments to achieve the best results.
Background information
Permanent staffs are employees hired by a company for an unpredicted period of time while temporary employees are those that are employed for a limited period of time all this depending on the organization employing the person (Collins et al., 1999). Permanent employees are entitled to other benefits like medical covers, pensions and holidays, unlike the temporary ones who may work on full time or temporary time depending on their situation though they may receive some benefits in some instances. Most permanent employees are paid salaries at the end of the month whereas temporary ones may be paid hourly, daily or at the end of a specified time in form of wages.
In addition, permanent employees are protected from unprecedented job termination by well spelled out policies that include an advance notice in the instance of layoffs and procedures of instilling discipline. On the other hand, temporary employees are not protected and can be fired at any time that the employer is discontented with him or her. Permanent employees have the privilege of joining unions that they can enjoy services ranging from financial and social benefits in the time of their employment. Many employees have referred permanent employees as the most committed because they look for career development within the industry while the temporary ones become more committed if there is a chance of a renewal of contract because it acts as a motivating factor (Sobaiah et al., 2012). The permanent employees are mostly common in the public sector while the temporary ones dominate the private sector. Also, the temporary employees are entitled to an overtime pay while the permanent ones rarely get an overtime pay because they are paid at the end of the month. In the recent past, temporary employees have been liked by most Germany logistic companies. Permanent employees in many companies enjoy medical cover at whenever at workplace they are assured of their safety. These health covers are acquired from insurance companies and in the case of sickness a member is taken to hospital under the companies bills. For the temporary staff, few companies’ offer medical covers for them and with this they are never satisfied medically. When it comes to medical satisfaction, permanent employees are the most satisfied because they are protected from job termination, unlike their temporary counterparts who can be fired at any time.
i. Data sources
In the identification of the topic, research papers and guidelines used for research were selected. They ranged from articles from the internet on this topic, journals, and other related books. All the studies put into consideration the differences between temporary and permanent employees and how health matters and job satisfaction of this two types of staff is looked into. I have to analyze the differences between this two types of staff to come up with their differences that are vital in the research.
ii. Time to be invested in research
The research is estimated to take approximately two weeks to do this research. This is because one is required to visit a company and conduct interviews, issue questionnaires and do observation in the environments where this two types of staff work. The time will also be used to compare the data acquired so as to come up with the correct information from the research.
iii. When field works will take place
The field work to do the research on the differences between temporary and permanent employees is scheduled to start immediately my proposal is accepted and I have acquired all the required resources to start the research.
iv. Number of participants
I have targeted more than fifty participants ranging from the interviews to assistants in the research. The participants have to be free from bias to avoid any aspect of false information.
v. The number of interviews to be conducted.
I will interview an equal sample of both permanent and temporary staff to get a clear knowledge of their differences. I will also interview the employers to know the type of employees whom they prefer most.
Theoretical framework
Job satisfaction can be defined as how one is contented with his or her job. It can depend on how management treats employees and also on individual perception (Gruenberg, 1979). The two types of job satisfaction include the affective one that mainly involves the emotional feeling of an individual about his or her job. The other one is cognitive that deals with the level of contentment regarding some chosen aspects of the job (Spector, 1997). Such aspects include pay and benefits. Depending on the type of employee one is in the organization, that is permanent or temporary the level of job satisfaction varies. Also, the health of employees tends to affect how satisfied they are in their jobs since without good health working is difficult. Thus as job satisfaction is looked into, the health of the employees must be looked into. Permanent employees tend to have the highest levels of job satisfaction than the temporary employees as they enjoy job security.
With this, the research on the difference of job satisfaction levels among the permanent staff as compared to the temporary ones can easily be identified. Before answering my research question on who between the permanent and the temporary employees enjoy good job satisfaction I will have to first conduct the interviews and questionnaires to get the best response from them. Secondly, I will have to analyze all the data got from the field research and also compare it with the theoretical perception of the same to come up with the best answer to my research question. The virtue of job satisfaction being personal will favor my research, methods like use of questionnaires and interviews as each employee will offer personal data.
In the process of conducting the research, I expect to face some challenges. These include;
I. Uncooperative employees who may not be willing to offer the correct information.
II. Vagaries of nature like poor climate may affect movements during the research period.
III. Harsh supervisors who may not be willing to stop the operations for the interviews to be conducted.
IV. Insufficient funds to facilitate the process of research.
With this, it will be important to conduct a reconnaissance so as to familiarize me with the field before the ideal fieldwork day. This will help me to minimize the unprecedented bottlenecks on the day of field research.
The research will not involve employees much because they may hide some information regarding their organizations but wholly deal with the employees alone. The research will also make use of only closed questionnaires instead of the open-ended once so that the respondents can give only the required data.

Collins, V. R., & Mirza, M. (1999). Working in tourism: The UK, Europe & beyond, for seasonal and permanent staff. Oxford: Vacation Work.
Gruenberg, M. M. (1979). Understanding job satisfaction. New York: Wiley.
Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, cause, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
Sobaih, Abu Elnasr E, Ritchie, Caroline, Coleman, Phil, & Jones, Eleri. (2012). Part-time restaurant employee perceptions of management practices: an empirical investigation. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Homework, Your contract responsibilities include preparing a proposal for a data communications network

Friday, June 12th, 2020

BackgroundYou have obtained a contract position at a large organisation. Your contract responsibilities include preparing a proposal for a data communications network to serve the organisation’s requirements.Network Scope The proposed network needs to serve the organisation’s Central Office and two of its remote offices. The Central Office, located in Brisbane, contains five departments to be served by this network. Each remote office contains four departments to be served. The North Office is located in North Lakes, about 30 Km from the Central Office. The South Office is located in Helensvale, about 65 Km from the Central Office. This network is mainly intended for administrative purposes.Objectives of the NetworkThe network to be designed to achieve several specific operational objectives:1. Secure Service: The main objective of this network is to provide secure administrative computing service to the Central Office and two adjoint offices. It is to be designed to be functionally and physically isolated from access by people not employed by the organisation so as to minimize the risk of unauthorized use.2. Integration and Update: Presently there are many LANs in the organisation, but much of the equipment is out of date, many of the LANs are incompatible with each other, and not connected in a system-wide network. Your proposal should describe a WAN that integrates and updates these LANs to support productive collaboration across the system.3. Versatile Information Processing: The network should enable users to retrieve, process, and store ASCII and non-ASCII text, still graphics, audio, and video from any connected computer.4. Collaboration: The network should combine the power and capabilities of diverse equipment across the three offices to provide a collaborative medium that helps users combine their skills regardless of their physical location. A well-designed network for this organisation will enable people to share information and ideas easily so they can work more efficiently and productively.5. Scalability: The design should be scalable so that more remote offices can be added as funding becomes available without having to redo the installed network.Intended UsersThe primary users of the network at the Central Office are three administrators, three secretaries, ten members of the Technical Department, eight members of the Human Resource Department, six members of the Finance/Accounting Department, and three members of the Computer Services Department. At the remote offices the primary users are four administrators, four secretaries, four members of the Computer Services Department, sixteen members of the Human Resource Department, and two members of the Finance/Accounting Department. Clients and the public are secondary users of the network in that they may receive information produced on the network, but they will not directly use the network.Data TypesThe types of data served by the network will be reports, bulletins, accounting information, personnel profiles, and web pages. The majority of the data will be text (ASCII and non-ASCII), but there will be some still graphics and possibly a small amount of voice and video (primarily for PCbased teleconferencing).Data SourcesData will be created and used at all end stations on the network. The data will be produced by software applications in Windows 10, primarily Dream Weaver and Office 2016 Professional (Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint, and Outlook). Other data sources to be supported on at least a limited basis will Windows 10 Accessories (Paint, Notepad, etc.), NetMeeting, Media Player, and Photoshop. Note that the network will be not accessible from outside.Network Needs AnalysisNumbers of Users and Priority Levels At the Central Office, the users will be administrators, secretaries, and members of four departments. At the adjoint offices, the users will be administrators, secretaries, and members of three departments. The maximum estimated number of users on the network at any given time is 100, including 33 regular users in the Central Office, 30 regular users in the North Office, 30 regular users in the South Office, and seven otherwise unanticipated users.Three priority levels to be supported: management (top priority), user (medium priority), and background (low priority). Note that these designations do not correspond to administrative levels in the organisation; rather, they are network service levels. Network management processes will receive top-priority service; most network processes will receive medium-priority service; a few processes (e.g., e-mail transfers, backup, etc.) will be given low-priority service. It should be noted that network management will usually consume a small amount of the available bandwidth; this means that management and user processes will usually enjoy identical support. Background processes will also usually receive more than adequate service, but they will be delayed as needed to maintain support for management and user services. Transmission Speed Requirements The network is to be transparent to the users. Thus, remotely executed applications, file transfers, and so forth should ideally appear to operate as quickly as processes executed within an endstation. Interviews with users to ascertain their needs and expectations indicate that an average throughput of 20 mbps per user within each LAN and 10 mbps per user between LANs will more than support the needed performance in most cases (teleconferencing being the possible exception).Load Variation Estimates Interviews with users and observation of LAN use at the three locations yielded data on hourly average and peak loads from January to March, 2020. The data indicate that the highest average traffic volume will occur from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The peak network traffic volume is expected at two times during the day: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and 3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. At night and on weekends the network traffic is minimal except for the daily backups of the PCs to the LAN servers in the remote offices and several batch data transfers anticipated from the remote offices to the Central Office. The data indicate the following network design parameters: • The average required throughput on any LAN during work hours (7:00 a.m. to 6:00p.m.) will be only about 0.2 mbps.• The average required throughput on the WAN during work hours (7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.) will be only 0.04 mbps.• The peak expected traffic load on any LAN will be about 10.4 mbps.• The peak expected traffic load on the WAN will be about 6.4 mbps.Note: to avoid user complaints, the network should be designed for the peak traffic loads, not the average throughput.Storage Requirements Storage requirements need to be large enough to store all data. Interviews and observations of users’ present and anticipated storage requirements indicate that each user will need an average of 100 MB of server space (in addition to secondary storage on local PCs); the maximum estimated server-side storage requirement per user is about 1 GB. Additionally, the network operating system will occupy about 500 MB on each LAN server. Taking price-performance issues into account, each PC will have a minimum storage capacity of 10 GB, each LAN server will have a minimum storage capacity of 20 GB. A main data server in the Central Office will have a 36 GB capacity.Reliability RequirementsIn keeping with user expectations and industry standards, both the LANs and the WAN are expected to operate at 99.9% uptime and an undiscovered error rate of .001%.Security Requirements Firewalls to be used so unauthorized users will be restricted. Part of the security will be Users accounts and passwords that will give limited access. There should be different access capabilities for network managers and users.Design Assumptions• Wireless internet access should be made available in all departments.• In response to the organisation’s enquiries regarding their IPv4 needs, their ISP has advised that they can use this block of public IPv4 addresses:• Each department at each location should maintain an individual network, while all the departments should be able to communicate with each other, and any necessary internal server(s), and access the Internet. Network management protocols must be deployed to make identification and management of network devices easy and convenient. Assignment Requirements and DeliverablesYou are to prepare a formal proposal report for the above organisation, which should include the following details (Activities 1-5) in the main body of the report. The proposal should cover the details asked in Activities 1-5 for the above case study and justify suitable technologies to enhance the organisation’s communications and networking within and outside the organisation. Be sure to include all necessary information and network diagrams.After you have gathered all the appropriate information, it is time to do some research. You must now use your knowledge and research skills to propose an appropriate technical solution for their limited budget and time requirements. When developing a plan, it is often easier to start at the end user and then work back toward the network and any shared resources, and then finally, any external connections to the Internet or other networks.Activity 1Develop and demonstrate a complete network layout plan for the organisation. Because the organisation has limited funds available for this project, it is important that where possible only equipment designed for the small business and home markets be used. Activity 2After the network layout has been selected, it is time to look at the workflow and decide on any shared components and network technology to support this workflow. This can include such things as shared printers, scanners, and storage as well as any firewalls, routers, switches, access points and integrated service routers. When planning a network infrastructure, always plan into the future. For larger companies, because it is usually a substantial investment, the infrastructure should have a lifetime of about 10 years. For smaller companies and home users, the investment is significantly less and change occurs more frequently.Using the Internet and locally available resources, research available high-speed colour copiers/printers/scanners, access points, switches and routers that are suitable for the organisation’s offices. In your report include a write-up for at least two devices of each equipment type and provide supporting details to justify your selection. Included in the write-up should be a description of the device, including the manufacturer, the model, the seller, the cost, and a brief summary of the manufacturer specifications.Activity 3It is necessary to plan the Internet connectivity, and which services are provided by the ISP and which services must be provided in-house. Larger companies usually provide services in-house, while small businesses and individuals normally rely on an ISP to provide these services. Most ISPs offer a variety of services and service levels. In your report include the specifics of internal services (networking and security) that must be offered by the organisation, and the devices and protocols that provide these services. Provide supporting details to justify your answer.Activity 4After the equipment has been selected and the required services planned, the physical and logical installation is planned out. Physical installation includes the location of equipment and devices, along with how and when these devices are to be installed. In the business environment, it is important to minimize disruption of the normal work processes. Therefore, most installations, changes, and upgrades are done during hours when there is minimal business activity. Physical installation should also consider such things as adequate power outlets and ventilation, as well as the location of any necessary data drops. Planning for physical installation is out of the scope of this assignment.Equally as important as planning the physical layout of the network and equipment is planning the logical layout. This includes such things as subnetting, addressing, naming, data flow, and security measures. Servers and some network devices are assigned static IP addresses to allow them to be easily identified on the network and to also provide a mechanism for controlling access to these devices. Most other devices can be assigned addresses using DHCP. Note that both a server and its backup server must be accessed via the same public IP address.Devise subnetting and addressing schemes for the organisation. The schemes must provide servers and some other network devices (where necessary) with a static address and allow all other hosts to be configured via DHCP. Identify and list the details of all internal and external subnets and the ranges of useable IP addresses (and default gateways) for DHCP within each internal subnet, and also assign an appropriate IP address (and default gateways) to network devices that should use a static IP address. Use the following tables to report the required setups for subnetting and addressing.Table 1: Subnetting Table (to be used for all the organisation’s internal and external subnets)Subnet Network Address Subnet Mask First Usable IP Address Last Usable IP Address Broadcast Address … Table 2: Addressing Table (to be used for all devices/interfaces with static IP addresses)Device Interface* IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway^ … *Can be NIC, Serial, FastEthernet, etc. ^ Use N/A for routers.Note: Show all your workings for subnetting in an appendix.Activity 5The organisation is concerned that their files and resources may be vulnerable through the wired or wireless networks. Explain how the use of public and private IP addresses together may address this concern and provide a security plan that allows only the organisation’s employees to connect to the network and gain access to company information and resources. Prepare and Present the ProposalAll gathered information and the proposed technical solution must be assembled into a format that makes sense to the organisation who has asked you to provide a solution. The formal report usually contains many different sections, including:• Title page• Executive Summary• Tables of Contents, Figures and Tables• Introduction • Project proposal, comprising needs statement, goals and objectives, methodology and timetable, technical solutions and evaluation, budget summary, and future plans.• Recommendations and Conclusions• Bibliography and List of Refences• Appended informationThe report is often presented to various groups for approval. When presenting the report, present it in a confident, professional, and enthusiastic manner. The report must be technically accurate and free from spelling and grammatical errors. The report must be written in Microsoft Word. Multiple files will not be accepted.Report Structure: The report must be formatted using the following guidelines: • Paragraph text: Use 11-point Calibri single line spacing • Headings: Use Arial in an appropriate type size • Margins: 2.0cm on all margins • Header: Report title• Footer: Page numbering – up to and including the Table of Contents use roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv), restart numbering using conventional numerals (1, 2, 3, 4) from the first page after the Table of Contents.• Title Page must not contain headers or footers• The report is to be structured as a formal business report.• Refer to the following references for details on report structures: Summers, J., Smith, B. (2014), Communications Skills Handbook, 4th Ed., Wiley, Australia Referencing: The report is to include appropriate references and these references should follow the Harvard method of referencing. Note that ALL references should be from journal articles, conference papers, technical papers, recognized experts in the field or vendors’ and service providers’ websites.