Public Communication, The case between Colin and the Daily Gazette

October 16th, 2020

Public Communication
The case between Colin and the Daily Gazette brings into light the challenges that members of the public face when stories about their lives are published by newspaper editors without their approval. Some stories are true and may push a person into the limelight positively, but other stories may be false and result in a scandal with the capacity to bring up legal action. Colin was a 22 years old student in college who managed to make a lot of money in a short period by inventing and selling an operating system known as Doors. This may have caused his former partner and roommate, Ralph to get jealous, and thus publish a false story to defame him.
As highlighted in Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S.323 (1974), a person is a public figure if they had clear evidence of fame, or notoriety in the community at large (Justina, 2020). They are to be pervasive in ordering how society runs and be of great influence. Colin never met any of these standards thus could not be deemed as being a public figure. He was just a college student that had sold a product that simply made him a lot of money in a short time. He did not meet the criteria of being a person of great influence in his society nor did he have anything to do with telling the people around him how to run their affairs. If Colin was to be categorized as a public figure for making a lot of money then all business owners worldwide would also be categorized as public figures. So Colin was right to argue that all he did was to invent and market a product like any other business owner worldwide would do.
However, after being sued, the Gazette emphasized that Colin was a public figure although he did not qualify legally to be deemed one. Therefore, at the contest, Colin should win the case because the gazette is wrong in its claim. In Gertz v. Robert, it is explained that simply having your story published by an editor in the newspaper just because your story is newsworthy does not amount a person to be a public figure. Most importantly news editors charged with libel cannot use their defense by converting private citizens into public figures because of covering their story in newspapers (Jewell,1994). The story published by the editor about Colin having cheated on his Political Science examination in his second year of college was even a lie from Ralph. As an editor, his nature or second job is that of being an impartial investigator.
When Ralph came to the Gazette’s editor with the story about Colin, the editor should have questioned his motives and investigated whether the story was true. News reporters and editors have ways and means to get the correct information and their employers provide them with resources to investigate the truth. Therefore it is clear that the editor did not do his due diligence to find the truth. He should have simply called Colin to ascertain his side of the story. In Levinsky’s Inc v. Walmart Stores Inc, 127 f 3d 122(1st Cir. 1997) the court held that all cases involving defamation require the plaintiff to prove negligence in the part of the defendant (Cornell Law school, 2019). As such, if Colin could prove to the court that the news editor portrayed neglect in editing the story, he had an upper hand. Luckily he had the proof because the story was false and he was never contacted regarding whether the story was true since it talked about his personal life in school. Thus, Colin would indeed win the case.

References
Cornell Law School. (2019). Defamation. LII / Legal Information Institute. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/defamation
Jewell, R. (1994). Libel and slander. Law Library – American Law and Legal Information – JRank Articles. https://law.jrank.org/pages/8240/Libel-Slander-PUBLIC-FIGURE-DOCTRINE-AN-UNWORKABLE-CONCEPT.html
Justia. (2020). Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323 (1974). Justia Law. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/418/323/

Cloud Services Essay

October 16th, 2020

Cloud Services
Forensic investigations have become more challenging with the increased sophistication of technology. Increased innovation has enabled fraudsters to use more sophisticated methods to steal and manipulate systems. As a result, this has proved to be a hard nut to crack for the forensic investigators. The emergence of new technologies, such as cloud computing, has improved connectivity within the forensics community. According to Daryabar et al. (2013), soon, digital forensics that incorporates cloud services will be vital in enhancing investigation through the exchange and preservation of data by forensic professionals making it possible to complete a survey with expedition. Notably, forensic investigations have, for a long time, experienced challenges and barriers. The challenges and barriers faced by forensic investigators include computer hardware issues that pose the risk of losing data, software challenges in cybercrime investigation, legal issues, identity theft, and the inability to gather data from different points and store them in a centralized location for the investigators. As Daryabar et al. (2013) indicate, the challenges make it impossible to have conduct coordinated and comprehensive investigation, thus incorporating cloud services will improve the management of criminal data in the interest of the criminal investigation. The adoption of cloud services in forensic investigations will make it possible to achieve digital forensics that manages forensic data from different investigations, thus making it possible to accomplish the forensic goals.
Impact of Changes in Technology on the Field of Digital Forensics
Changes in technology have made significant impacts on digital forensics. Therefore, there is a need to adopt the appropriate measures to counter the undesirable effects of technological changes. According to Quick and Choo (2014), technological changes in digital forensic have largely impacted modern law enforcement in areas such as government agencies, which have become more efficient. Importantly, there has been a rise in technological and mobile society, resulting in tremendous digital forensics growth. Therefore, changes in technology have eliminated some of the traditional challenges, thus improving the investigators. The barriers encountered in forensic investigations have been consistently reduced, thus streamlining operation. This has made it easy for professionals in this area to conduct investigations. For instance, FBI records show that case leads have decreased with the incorporation of digital examination. According to Moran-Perez (2020), In 2012, the FBI had 13,330 cases, but the lead was reduced to 6500 cases in 2003 due to the adoption of technology in the form of digital investigations.
Changes in technology have increased the capacity of law enforcement agencies to track criminals and assist victims. According to Quick and Choo (2014), improved technology makes it possible to analyze evidence, thus introducing links between criminals and their crime, thus making it possible to solve cases. More cases of cybercrime have been solved using the latest technology in digital forensics. A significant characteristic of cybercrimes is that criminals leave digital footprints of their activities, thus making it possible to track and catch up with them. For instance, technology has made it possible for tracking and assisting victims of child pornography. The increased use of personal computers has increased cases of child trafficking and pornography, thus expanding the scope of crime and the complexity of apprehending criminals (Moran-Perez, 2020). The internet has further increased and facilitated the distribution of child pornography content. However, changes in technology have increased digital forensic techniques and approaches that have effectively made it possible to track and arrest criminals involved with child trafficking and pornography.
Technological changes have also contributed to the reduction of online fraud through the increase of digital forensic tools. According to Daryabar et al. (2013), online fraud has gained a lot of mileage and public consciousness in the last decade. It is characterized by banking crimes and corporate insurance fraud, securities and commodities fraud, and identity fraud, thus overwhelming the police. Online fraud has topped as the most common complaint made to the internet crime complaint center. However, changes in technology have increased digital tools that enhance fast and reliable data and information acquisitions and analysis to track and convict cybercriminals, thus reducing the cyber fraud-related cases.
Impact of Cloud Services on the Field of Digital Forensics
Cloud services have positively impacted digital forensics in various areas, especially in evidence and data management. Cloud services have primarily contributed to the preservation of evidence and data in the interest of investigations. Data is stored remotely, thus ensuring that it is not interfered with or compromised by malicious parties to the investigation. Data acquisition from a cloud service provider is made by serving them with a court order (O’shaughnessy, and Keane, 2013). This helps in ensuring that such evidence can only be available to the right parties, thus effectively preserving it.
Cloud services in digital forensic enhance the implementation of surveys by supporting the identification of various evidence. This plays a critical role in the development of multiple theories relevant to the incident. Cloud services enhance the storage and preservation of fragile pieces of evidence such as evidence collected immediately after an incident and volatile memory for the investigations process (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). Under the cloud services, the investigator can identify potential evidence using the platform as a service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). Under the IaaS model, most of the evidence is available to the investigator since the customer can control the virtual applications, and operating systems. In the PaaS model, the customer is able to develop and deploy applications developed using programming languages, services, libraries, and tools supported by the provider (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). However the customer is not able to control and manage the underlying Infrastructure.
Cloud services in the digital forensic enable the investigators to search and collect evidence and relevant data related to various cases. The search and collection processes involve thorough analysis and evaluation of the system for digital evidence. Different analysis methods can be adopted. The investigator should know the location and arrangement of data in the cloud environment. This will ensure that they have sufficient data and evidenceevidence to present before the other criminal justice system (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). Therefore, the fact that cloud services stores all the collected evidence of different case enables the investigator to locate them without much efforts for the conviction of the criminals.
Differences
There are several significant differences in conducting forensic analysis compared to a situation where one is already holding devices that one has control over. First, the situation presents the difference in the scope and extent of the investigation. In forensic investigation, the investigator will go for any probable lead to the investigation to collect enough evidence for the crimes under investigation. In case the investigator has devices, he/she has control over, then they will exhaustively conduct investigations on the devices to retrieve the relevant evidence and data for their cases (Sammons, 2012). In this case, the investigators work on the devices and exploit the different leads to collect sufficient evidence and data for their cases. Secondly, the circumstances presented develop different levels and processes to access evidence and data. When conducting forensic analysis, they will have to liaise with external parties and seek approvals in accessing additional evidence to ensure that the analysis process is complete. On the other hand, when investigators have devices they have full control then, one will not have to seek permission and approvals in the course of analyzing them. In this case, they go straight to retrieving the evidence and data and conducting the relevant analysis.
Major Details and Methods
There different issues that affect cloud-based digital forensic. Cloud services’ multi-tenancy capability allows several clients to share physical server and use services provided by similar computing hardware and software simultaneously. This approach to access cloud services poses challenges of compromising investigators’ operations as they operate sensitive data (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). Data provenance is dependent on the cloud service model used in the operations. This process entails the recording of the ownership of data as well as the processing of data history. This aspect is vital in digital forensic investigation. Therefore, investigators should adopt relevant models and effective storage management techniques.
Conclusion
The field of forensic investigation has changed gradually due to growth in technology. Particularly, innovations and emerging technologies have primarily contributed to the adoption of cloud based digital forensics across the globe. As technology continues to grow and become more sophisticated, investigators should be aware that fraudsters will become more complicated. They must therefore strive ti ensure that their methods remain at par with technology.

References
Daryabar, F., Dehghantanha, A., Udzir, N. I., Sani, N. F. B. M., Shamsuddin, S., & Norouzizadeh, F. (2013). A survey about impacts of cloud computing on digital forensics. International Journal of Cyber-Security and Digital Forensics, 2(2), 77-94.
Quick, D., & Choo, K. K. R. (2014). Impacts of increasing volume of digital forensic data: A survey and future research challenges. Digital Investigation, 11(4), 273-294.
Sammons, J. (2012). The basics of digital forensics: the primer for getting started in digital forensics. Elsevier.
O’shaughnessy, S., & Keane, A. (2013, January). Impact of cloud computing on digital forensic investigations. In Ifip international conference on digital forensics (pp. 291-303). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Moran-Perez, G. (2020, February 13). A timeline of outbreaks from 2000 to present. Retrieved from https://sundial.csun.edu/156361/news/a-timeline-of-outbreaks-from-2000-to-present/

OS and Application Security Strategy Essay

September 23rd, 2020

OS and Application Security Strategy
Name
Institution

OS and Application Security Strategy
One of the vulnerabilities is known as remote code execution (RCE). This vulnerability permits attackers to run arbitrary code on vulnerable workstations and servers remotely. Attackers can then carry out actions to exploit other susceptibilities. Remote code is the most common vulnerabilities currently found in OS, and it can lead to other attacks, encompassing elevation of privileges, and denial-of-service (Hesselman, 2019). RCE vulnerabilities are typically marked “critical” and should thus be patched instantly. The other vulnerability is known as Denial-of-Service (DoS). This is one of the main Microsoft STRIDE threats that make services such as Windows and browsers not able to function often. There are two kinds of DoS vulnerabilities: flood attacks and crash attacks. Flood attacks occur when a system gets excess requests, causing the services to slow down and ultimately stop (Yu, 2013). Other DoS attacks take advantage of vulnerabilities that create a service or system to crash. Spoofing is yet another vulnerability. Spoofing denotes the process of mimicking an individual by tampering with authentication, utilizing a password and username. Attackers can use spoofing to access confidential information on account of victims. Spoofing mainly takes place in applications that utilize the Chakra engine like Edge and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.
Anti-malware solution operating systems it supports.
The Malware Protection Engine is recommended. This solution works by scanning all the new files to check for malware or threats. It supports Windows Defender and Microsoft Security Essentials. The Avira anti-virus is also recommended, and especially for DoS attacks. This anti-malware has a 3-layer protection scheme. The conventional malware scanner makes a comparison between files against a library of known threats. The heuristic monitoring explores code and watches for indications of an attack. It then scans the OS and blocks HTTP request attacks. This anti-malware supports Microsoft Windows Mobile 5.0 and Microsoft Windows Vista.
Intrusion detection system (IDS) solution and the reasoning for the recommendation
IDS is an essential component of a truly successful solution. It flags up incoming and outgoing malicious traffic so that an organization can take proactive steps to protect its network. In this regard, the recommended IDS is known as the SolarWinds Security Event Manager (SEM) Essay. This solution serves to augment efficiencies in administering, managing, and monitoring security policies as well as protecting an organization’s network (Kumar, Pattnaik & Pandey, 2017). This solution is suggested because it makes it easy to monitor, backup continually, forward or store log files, and encompasses built-in transit and storage encryption. More so, SEM is Studypro Essay Writing recommended because it is useful and keeps the IT staff informed so that they can respond quickly and accurately to a possible threat.
Control strategies for securing the company’s web-based infrastructure
Several strategies can be applied to secure the company’s web-based infrastructure. One of the approaches entails strengthening the management of patches and vulnerability assessment capabilities. These will help the company to promptly identify vulnerabilities that need to be tackled and connect them to patches that can be deployed to databases, servers, endpoints, and applications to remediate them. Another strategy entails taking advantage of Web Application Firewalls (WAFs). WAFs offer a vital line of defense for important applications and data by assessing user access to web applications that are critical to business and dealing with threats that are woven to website traffic that is innocent-looking (Buecker et al., 2016). Contrary to conventional firewalls that majorly regulate traffic based on ports and protocols they utilize, a WAF regulates access to web applications utilizing rules formulated to identify common attacks like SQL injection and cross-site scripting.
Control strategies for securing the company’s database infrastructure
One way of securing the company’s database infrastructure is to use database firewalls. These firewalls will thus disallow traffic access automatically. The only traffic that is permitted to pass through must come from a particular application or web servers that require data access. The firewall must also safeguard the database from instigating outgoing linkages except in cases where there is a specific requirement to do so (Tripathy, 2013). Another strategy pertains to data encryption. A majority of companies encrypt the data that is at rest, but in this case, the company needs to encrypt backup data. This data should then be stored in a different location from the decryption keys (not, for instance, stored in an encrypted form but next to the keys in plaintext). In addition to encrypting stored data, it is also vital to ensure that when sensitive information is moving over the network, it is in an encrypted format to safeguard against security threats in the database (Tripathy, 2013). Managing the database access tightly is yet another strategy. This entails minimizing the number of people that can access the database. For instance, administrators should only be given minimum privileges, they require to carry out their job functions, and only when they require access.
Two (2) items for operating system security hardening procedures
One of the operating system security hardening procedures is program cleanup. It entails getting rid of the unnecessary program. Each program is another possible entry point for an attacker. Cleaning these out assists in restricting the number of ways in. The other procedure is the utilization of service packs. This involves keeping up-to-date and installing the most recent versions of the organization’s operating system.

References
Buecker, A., Campos, A., Cutler, P., Hu, A., Jeremiah, G., Matsui, T., & Zarakowski, M. (2016). Endpoint security and compliance management design guide using IBM Tivoli endpoint manager. IBM StudyPro essay writing Redbooks.
Hesselman, C. (2019). Mobile wireless Middleware, operating systems and applications – Workshops: Mobilware 2009 workshops, Berlin, Germany, April 28-29, 2009, revised selected papers. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kumar, R., Pattnaik, P., & Pandey, P. (2017). Detecting and mitigating robotic cyber security risks. IGI Global.
Tripathy, B. (2013). Advances in secure computing, internet services, and applications. IGI Global.
Yu, S. (2013). Distributed denial of service attack and defense. Springer Science & Business Media.

Leadership and Supervision Action Plan Essay

September 23rd, 2020

Leadership and Supervision Action Plan
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

Leadership and Supervision Action Plan
Section 1
Developing Effective Organizational and Interpersonal Communication Skills
Goal 1: Be recognized by my associates as one with effective oral, written, and presentation capabilities when communicating about my worries, opinions, and interests, Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5. 1 – Appropriate, 2 – adequate, 3 – slightly better, 4 – great, and 5 – excellent (Congress, 2017). The goal will be achieved when all assessments get a score of four or higher.
Objective 1: I will request my close colleagues to share their opinions regarding my capacity to engage in effective oral and written communication when relaying my concerns, views, and interests. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5 used to match the goal above. I will request the colleagues to suggest areas that I need to improve.
Objective 2: I will apply the suggestions by the colleagues as noted in objective 1 above to amend my development plan. The goal is to improve the way that I use oral and written communication to express my opinions and interests. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5 to match goal 1 in one month.
Goal 2: Be recognized as a person with high levels of integrity and responsibility in the way that I communicate to my colleagues in a way that expresses my reliability, accountability, and self-discipline (Congress, 2017). Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5 with the aspects highlighted in goal 1. The goal will be attained when I score four or higher.
Objective 1: I will consider the satisfaction levels and views of my colleagues by requesting them to provide opinions to determine my ability to build confidence among them concerning reliability, accountability, and self-discipline. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5.
Objective 2: I will use the responses given to me in objective 1 above to make changes to my action plan. I should improve on how I build confidence among my colleagues during communication. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 that meet goal 2.
Managing Time and Tasks Effectively
Goal 1: Be known as a person who keeps time and handles tasks appropriately within the set frameworks and standards (Tuten, Morris-Compton, Abrefa-Gyan, Hwang, & Harrington, 2016). Evaluation Method: Semantic differential scale with combinations of reliable v. unreliable, timely v. untimely, effective v. ineffective. The goal will be attained with positive responses.
Objective 1: I will rely on my supervisor to provide opinions regarding my ability to keep time and handle tasks appropriately. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with the aspects of goal 1.
Objective 2: I will use the responses provided by the supervisor to change my action plan for improvement. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale meeting positive targets of goal 1.
Goal 2: I will be recognized as a person who abides by the set schedules and timelines without failure in all my tasks. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with the same combinations as in goal 1. The goal will be achieved with positive reactions.
Objective 1: I will check my previous tasks to see if they were completed within the set timelines and schedules. Evaluation method: Semantic differentials scale to give a positive notion of the result.
Objective 2: I will check with my supervisor regarding my performance concerning adhering to deadlines. Evaluation method; semantic differentials scale. Objective will be achieved with positive response.
Managing Different Personalities and Traits
Goal 1: Identify and handle different personalities and traits depicted by my colleagues (Congress, 2017). Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with elements of 1-strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree. The goal will be achieved with a score of 4 or above.
Objective 1: I will rely on my colleagues for responses. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 to respond to this; “I am able to handle your personalities and traits” using the elements in goal 1. They will also provide recommendations for improvement.
Objective 2: I will use the responses given by my colleagues to conduct amendments to my action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on the elements in goal 1 with a score of four and above.
Goal 2: Distinguish my colleagues based on their personalities and traits into an ambitious and amiable, anxious warrior, and their temperaments ((Tuten et al., 2016). Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on elements in goal 1 with the statement “I am aware of your personalities and traits”. The goal is achieved when the score is 4 or above.
Objective 1: Compare my understanding of colleagues’ personalities with what they say in their responses. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with focus on elements in goal 2.
Objective 2: I will use the variations noted through the responses in objective 1 to change the action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with focus on goal 2 elements.
Hiring, Performance Evaluation, Disciplinary Action, and Termination
Goal 1: Be capable of executing my employment and retaining process effectively through proper methods of hiring and performance assessment (Congress, 2017). Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations of effective v. ineffective, appropriate v. inappropriate, capable v. incapable, and competent, v. incompetent. The goal is achieved with positive reactions.
Objective 1: Compare my actions with the best rated hiring and performance evaluation processes. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations that help achieve goal 1.
Objective 1: Rely on my colleagues’ responses regarding my hiring and performance evaluation approaches. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with the same combination as goal 1.
Goal 2: Execute appropriate disciplinary actions and use the correct process of job termination. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations as in goal 1. The goal will be achieved with positive responses.
Objective 1: Compare my practices with the best-ranked approaches for executing disciplinary action and terminations. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale.
Objective 2: Request my colleagues to give views regarding my method of issuing disciplinary actions and terminating people. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale.
Maintaining Ethics, Confidentiality, and Liability
Goal 1: I will be recognized as a person who complies with ethics in decision-making processes and instills confidentiality in all that I do. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with the elements of 1-strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree. The goal will be achieved with a score of 4 or more.
Objective 1: I will compare my actions regularly with the code of conduct of the organization to determine compliance. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with elements in goal 1. I will assess my areas of improvement.
Objective 2: I will use my areas of improvement in objective 1 to make changes to my action plan in 2 months. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with the same elements to meet targets of goal 1.
Goal 2: I will be known as someone who takes responsibility for personal actions by assuming liability for my decisions. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with similar elements in goal 1. The goal will be attained with a score of 4 and above.
Objective 1: Conduct a self-reflection exercise on my past actions and decisions to determine my responsibility and accountability. Evaluation method: Self-reflection that would help determines my areas of weakness.
Objective 2: Apply the areas of improvement in objective one to make amendments to my action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 that would match expected scores in goal 2.
Practicing Professional Development, Self-Care, Personal Reflection, and Self-Correction
Goal 1: I will be recognized as an individual who can improve on previous practices and efforts by engaging in self-reflection and practicing professional development in my field of work. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with 1-has a poor professional development plan, 3-good self-reflection approach, and development plan, 5-excellent personal reflection, and professional development. A score of more than 4 will achieve the goal.
Objective 1: Able by the provisions of my professional development plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with the same metrics as in goal 1. I will recognize the areas of improvement through self-reflection.
Objective 2: I will use the noted areas of improvement in objective 1 to change my action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 to achieve aspects of goal 1 above in two months.
Goal 2: I will be identified as a person who acknowledges my mistakes, including willing to conduct changes where necessary to enhance the success and improved professional growth. Evaluation method: Self-assessment based on my personal development goals. The goal will be achieved after the positive outcomes of the assessment.
Objective 1: I should note my areas of weakness and conduct amendments to my action plan. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to achieve goal 2.
Objective 2: I will seek help from my supervisor to note any areas that I can work on. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to achieve aspects of goal 2 above in 3 months.
Developing and Managing an Effective Culturally Competent Practice Including Organizational Culture and Environment
Goal 1: I will be noticed as a person who understands the culture and all its functions in human behavior and society. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations of competent v. incompetent, knowledgeable v. unknowledgeable. The goal will be achieved through positive aspects.
Objective 1: I will have the knowledge base of my clients’ cultures and demonstrate competence in offering services. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations in goal 1.
Objective 2: I will improve my understanding based on loopholes noted in objective 1. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to determine if goal 1 has been achieved in 3 months.
Goal 2: Improve education and seek understanding of the nature of social diversity as well as discrimination in various aspects, including race, gender, and sex. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale based on combinations in goal 1 above. The goal will be achieved with positive elements.
Objective 1: I will conduct a self-evaluation process to determine my understanding of the various aspects of social diversity and oppression. Evaluation method: Self-assessment.
Objective 2: I will conduct amendments to my action plan based on the results of my self-assessment. Evaluation method: Use key performance indicators self-fulfillment to reach targets noted in goal 2 above.
Being a Collaborative Leader in Training Supervisees in the Effective Use of Technology
Goal 1: Be recognized as a person who strives for the best for my supervisees by working collaboratively with colleagues to enhance the effective application of technology. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 consisting of 1-strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree. Goal will be achieved with a score of 4 or above.
Objective 1: Rely on my supervisor to provide responses regarding my performance concerning collaboration in the last two months. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on combinations in goal 1.
Objective 2: I will ask my supervisees to rate my work in training them on effective use of technology. Evaluation method: Likert scale as in goal 1 above.
Goal 2: That I can plan appropriately to ensure that nothing is interrupted in the process of training supervisees on effective usage of technology. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on elements identified in goal 1. The goal is achieved with a score of 4 and above.
Objective 1: I will request my supervisees to provide views of their understanding of my training effectiveness. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 to achieve goal 2 above.
Objective 2: I will use the responses made in objective 1 above to make amendments on my action plan. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to make sure that the changes are achieved in two months.
Section 2
I can intentionally integrate leadership skills and the application of technology in supervisory skills while promoting advanced generalist practice. The advanced generalist practice is shaped by leadership, political, social, economic, cultural, geographic, and environmental aspects that are evolving unprecedentedly (Byrne, Kirwan, & Mc Guckin, 2019). I always ensure that electronic social work services are confidential at all times. For instance, the requirement is that information offered by clients should only be accessed by the authorized personnel that needs it. Requests for contents in the server ought to comply with the privacy standards of the social worker. As a leader, one needs to maintain clear professional boundaries (National Association of Social Workers, 2015). Social workers and leaders are required to be aware of boundary confusion that may emanate from the disclosure of personal details about themselves or other people online. In doing so, I will operate effectively and efficiently as a leader in advanced generalist practice.
Section 3
I can also incorporate current leadership and technology changes that happen in social work, especially those that lead to systematic transformations towards sustainability. Social workers have a duty of creating sustainability in the interventions with their clients (National Association of Social Workers, 2013). I will use my leadership skills and technology to sustain the supervision and a similar obligation when operating essay together with my supervisees by complying with standards associated with online and distance learning. Supervisees should be familiar with the ongoing practice, rules, ethical principles, and accreditations concerned with the application of technology (National Association of Social Workers, 2017). I will evaluate the sustainability of my skills by conducting self-assessments regularly in an interval of two months to monitor my progress. Some of the key performance indicators will include increased satisfaction of my supervisees and improved overall success in practice.

References
Byrne, J., Kirwan, G., & Mc Guckin, C. (2019). Social media surveillance in social work: Practice realities and ethical implications. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 37(2-3), 142-158.
Congress, E. P. (2017). What social workers should know about ethics: Understanding and resolving practice dilemmas. Social Work Ethics, 1(1), 1909-35.
National Association of Social Workers. (2013). Best practice standards in social work supervision. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=GBrLbl4BuwI%3D&portalid=0
National Association of Social Workers. (2015). Standards and indicators for cultural competence in social work practice. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=PonPTDEBrn4%3D&portalid=0
National Association of Social Workers. (2017). NASW, ASWB, CSWE, & CSWA standards for technology in social work practice. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=lcTcdsHUcng%3D&portalid=0
Tuten, M., Morris-Compton, D., Abrefa-Gyan, T., Hwang, J., & Harrington, D. (2016). Predictors of the use of evidence-based interventions among National Association of Social Work (NASW) members. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 13(3), 253-262.

3802ICT Programming Languages Problem 1: Simpson’s Rule

August 20th, 2020

3802ICT Programming Languages, Trimester 2, 2020
Assignment 1
School of Information and Communication Technology
Griffith University
August 19, 2020
Marks 20
Due 11:59 pm, Tuesday 8 September, 2020.
1 Problems
Problem 1: Simpson’s Rule (5 marks)
Problem: Create a Haskell module that exports a higher order function that will numerically
integrate a function f(x) with type Double -> Double from a lower limit a to an upper limit
b, using Simpson’s 1/3 rule, to a given tolerance, .
The solution must be efficient, in that it should not call f(x) for the same x value twice.
Also provide a Main module with a test driver.
Problem 2: Quadtrees (5 marks)
Attached.
Problem 3: Another Puzzling Problem (5 marks)
Attached.
Problem 4: A Plug For UNIX (5 marks)
Attached.
2 Submission
• Make sure your scripts are a plain text files, with a names ending in .hs or .lhs.
• Put each solution in a folder named Problemn .
• Put all these folders in a folder named your family name, eg Rock.
• Zip it, and submit via the link on Learning@Griffith. Multiple submissions will be accepted, but
only the last one will be marked.
3 Extensions
Extensions must only be applied for by the official online system, with appropriate documentation.
3.1 Help
• Ask questions in labs.
• Ask questions in the Assignment 1 chat on Teams. Post no code. Anything in English is OK. Watch
what other people are asking for clues.
1
3.2 Feedback
• Marks to the marks centre on Learning@Griffith.
• Via the Rubric on Learning@Griffith.
2

In 2-3 pages, please review and do a full study

August 20th, 2020

Instructions:

In 2-3 pages, please review and do a full study. This assignment will come from chapter 2 on page 2.7. Review the case named “Electroplater Who Claims He Has No Hazardous Waste”. In this study, briefly evaluate the information and your evaluation of the case. In addition, research the Internet and locate an incident that has a related occurrence to this incident. Please discuss and describe the entire case. Be sure to correctly cite all information and in accordance with APA formatting.

Submission Instructions: Please attach the assignment in Word Format. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. (Note: Please do not forget to include the author of the case to the references)

2.7 CASE STUDY
Electroplater Who Claims He Has No Hazardous Waste
Many facilities have tried to be clever with the waste determinations, claiming there isn’t really a waste because they still have use for it, or might have a use for it someday.
In one such case, an inspector visited an electroplating company (see Figure 2.5) where the owner was already under investigation for other unrelated behavior. The inspector obtained a search warrant based on employee complaints about poor waste management practices and potential health and safety issues.
Upon arrival, and after waiting for a uniformed officer to serve the search warrant, the inspector entered the facility and found two major issues:
Several hundred containers of electroplating chemicals were scattered throughout a very old and crumbling six story building. The owner insisted that none of the containers were waste. He claimed that they were still good plating solutions, and that they were being saved for later use. Upon testing the containers, it turned out that virtually all of the “good” plating solutions were actually spent to a point where they would be virtually useless in the future. The owner was accumulating these containers in order to avoid the cost of proper disposal.
The facility was still conducting electroplating, with numerous health and safety issues, including a “green fog” of fumes throughout the building from the plating operation. The workers complained of irritating fumes and respiratory problems. In addition, there was a large plating tank divided into two parts by one steel plate, a cyanide solution was contained on one side and an acid bath on the other. Any mixture of the two solutions would have caused a release of deadly cyanide gas.
Larger View

Figure 2.5: Electroplater who claimed to have no hazardous waste.
The inspector immediately contacted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), who immediately shut down the facility due to the imminent hazard associated with the tank containing acid and cyanide.
The owner claimed none of the containers contained waste. He stated that all of the containers contained valuable and useable plating solutions that he planned to use in the future. The sheer quantity of “product” was staggering, with hundreds of containers, some in very poor condition, scattered all over the six-story building.
To deal with the “product” that was actually waste, the federal government called the practice speculative accumulation and declared the entire property a hazardous waste cleanup site. The USEPA spent over $2 million securing the site and removing the containers. The building was demolished after the cleanup because it was deemed to be structurally unsound.
The case studies above give a few examples of the issues associated with the identification of hazardous waste. The hazardous waste regulations can be interpreted in many different ways, and the safest determination is one agreed to by the USEPA and the home state regulatory agency staff. Any company that makes an independent waste identification or relies on a waste broker or vendor is taking a risk that may cause problems and possible additional costs.

Hazardous Waste Management: An Introduction
By Clifton VanGuilder (2012)

Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology

August 20th, 2020

Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology
Introduction
Regional pain disorder can traumatize patients for years if they do not receive the right treatment. Providers should make a careful analysis and prescribe effective medication to manage the pain. One of the best decisions is to prescribe Savella which is effective in chronic pain management (Hollander et al., 2020). Providers should also educate patients to enhance compliance and trust. Clinicians should also observe ethical guidelines to enhance the quality of treatment. The prescription of Savella requires a careful analysis of patient outcomes to promote recovery and suppress side effects.
Decision #1
The first decision is to prescribe Savella 12.5 mg orally once daily on day 1; followed by 12.5 mg BID on day 2 and 3; followed by 25 mg BID on days 4-7; followed by 50 mg BID thereafter.
Rationale
The rationale for making the decision and disregarding the other two options is to alter how the brain detects pain. According to the assessment, the patient is suffering from regional pain disorder. The condition causes patients to experience a low pain threshold in the brain as a result of the changes in the central nervous system and how it responds to pain (Staal et al., 2019). Consequently, patients of regional pain disorder are highly sensitive to pain due to the alterations in the neurotransmitter levels. Savella is an effective medication since it will interfere with the neurotransmitters thus reducing the sensitivity to pain. One of the effects of the drug is to inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (Stahl, 2013). The drug is also responsible for triggering an analgesic effect on the nerve endings that are responsible for detecting pain. The general impact leads to relieving pain, enhance memory and reduce the level of fatigue (Stahl, 2013). Savella is thus an effective and compatible disease with the condition of the patient.
One of the major considerations while prescribing Savella to the patient is to provide information about the drug. For example, the patient should avoid taking other drugs or alcohol while on treatment (Stahl, 2013). Drug interaction may cause negative outcomes such as fainting, dizziness or death. It is also essential to stick to the treatment plan to avoid adverse effects.
Decision #1 also involves discarding other available options such as Amitriptyline. The drug is a common antidepressant that is mostly used in the management of pain. Amitriptyline triggers side effects such as drowsiness (Chevreau et al., 2017). The drug is not effective since the patient indicated that he was taking another drug that caused drowsiness. The patient indicated he did not take the drug consistently as a result of the side effects (Chevreau et al., 2017). Prescribing the drug may thus lead to non-compliance issues which can affect the treatment of pain.
Neurontin, an anticonvulsant as well as an antiepileptic, is also another common drug for treatment and management of pain. One of the side effects of the drug is drowsiness and dizziness which can also trigger non-compliance (Goh et al., 2017). In some cases, the drug can cause tremors and viral infections. Therefore, it is essential to select an option that will be friendly to a patient.
Projected Outcomes
The projected outcome after four weeks is that the severity of pain will decrease to 3 points on a scale of 1 to 10. A significant reduction in the severity of the pain should enhance the movement of the patient with minimal support. He should also go back to work even if it is of minimal participation. Savella should also generate a stable effect that will improve the mood of a patient (Birklein et al., 2018). During treatment, it is expected that the patient may experience side effects such as increased heart palpitations, reduced quality of sleep and bouts of sweating.
Actual vs. Projected Outcomes
While the patient reports to the clinic after four weeks, he is walking, with minimal limping, without crutches as compared to the initial visit to the clinic. According to the patient, the pain had abated significantly enabling him to walk and work without using crutches. This is according to the expectations after prescribing the medication. The patient reports that, however, the pain is severe in the morning hours compared to the evening. According to the patient, the pain is at level 4 on a scale of 1 to 10 compared to the expected level 3. He also indicated that in some instances his sleep was disrupted by intense pain.
Savella also causes a common side effect which includes bouts of sweating which can disrupt the quality of sleep (Birklein et al., 2018). According to the patient, the sweating has reduced quality of sleep. Savella increases heart palpitations which are responsible for disrupting sleep and triggering bouts of sweating. The blood pressure of the patient was 147/92mmhg while the pulse rate was 110 beats/ min. No suicidal or homicidal thoughts were reported. The side effects of the drug were expected, but they will be managed as the treatment progresses.
Decision #2
The decision #2 is inspired by the outcomes of the first decision and the side effects. The patient reported significant improvement which should be maintained in the next four weeks. One of the decisions could involve reducing the dosage to relieve the patient of the increasing heart palpitations, sweating and improve the quality of sleep (Birklein et al., 2018). However, reducing the drug instantly could lead to a relapse of the pain-causing more discomfort to the patient.
Therefore, the best decision is to increase the drug at bedtime to lower the chances of waking up due to intense pain at night while reducing the dosage in the morning. Savella 25mg orally in the morning and 50mg orally at bedtime is the best option for this decision to boost positive outcomes and manage the negative outcomes (Hollander et al., 2020). Research shows that the management of pain requires a critical adjustment of drugs since the pain may occur at different times causing a diverse impact on patients.
Changing the drug is not healthy since the current prescription is already generating the desired results. According to evidence-based practice, changing the drug can lead to side effects that can undermine the recovery process (Hollander et al., 2020). The current prescription will involve balancing between treatment and suppressing the negative outcome.
Projected Outcomes
The results of decision #2 include suppressing the pain further and allowing the patient to work and walk without any assistance. Another expectation is that the patient should experience a reduction in the heart palpitations. He should also experience a better quality of sleep and a reduction in the sweating episodes (Staal et al., 2019). For example, the patient should not complain of waking up at night due to pain since bedtime medication is high. A decrease in the side effects is essential especially in improving the quality of life of a person (Staal et al., 2019).
Actual vs. Projected Outcomes
The patient reports back to the clinic after four weeks. He is still walking without crutches which is a significant milestone in the treatment of pain. He also reports that he can participate in his workplace with minimal assistance. According to the patient, the severity of the pain is still at level 4 out of 10. The same outcome was experienced four weeks ago. It is easy to understand the results since the dosing changed to manage the side effects. Evidence-based practice demonstrates that reducing the dosage can interfere with the management of pain (Chevreau et al., 2017). A provider should thus strike a critical balance between managing pain and suppressing the side effects. Additionally, the patient reported that he did not wake up at night due to pain (Chevreau et al., 2017). His quality of sleep had improved but his heart palpitations and heart rate were still evident. He also reports that episodes of sweating had reduced. Another outcome is that the patient did not experience a difference in the severity of pain in the morning and evening. He also denied suicidal or homicidal ideation.
Decision #3
Decision #3 involved continuing with the current medication and dosing since it is generating significant positive progress. One of the major expected outcomes was to help the patient to walk and work without using crutches. The decision involves prescribing Savella 25mg orally in the morning and 50mg at bedtime.
During the prescription, it is essential to educate the patient that the treatment is trying to balance between side effects and treatment. The patient should also know that the drug is one of the best options available and that other drugs cause worse side effects (Goh et al., 2017). However, upon recovery, the side effects will abate naturally. It is not advisable to introduce a new drug at this stage since it can comprise treatment (Goh et al., 2017). The provider should also caution a patient against buying medication to treat side effects. However, the provider will take a precaution of examining the heart rate and pulse rate of a patient regularly (Goh et al., 2017). The purpose of regular checkups is to ensure he is within the normal limits.

Projected Outcomes
The patient should report back to the clinic after four weeks. The results include the ability to work and walk with minimal or no support. It is expected that the patient will rate the severity of pain at 3 out of 10. A reduction in the level of pain should allow the pain to participate in daily activities without struggling (Birklein et al., 2018). It is also expected the patient will indicate they had quality sleep since they did not have to wake up in the middle of the night due to pain (Birklein et al., 2018). Another projected outcome is that the heart rate and the palpitations will have normalized without severe bouts of sweating.
The expectations should also involve educating a patient on what they should expect. One of the expected outcomes is that the pain may remain at 3 out of 10 without further subsidizing. Neuropathic pain syndrome may trigger some pain in the long-term (Birklein et al., 2018). However, the patient will participate in his workplace and walk without any support.
Actual vs. Projected Outcomes
The patient reports back to the clinic after four weeks. He reports that the pain had reduced to 3 out of 10 which is manageable. His blood pressure is at 120/84mmhg while the pulse rate is 86 beats per minute. He also reports no suicidal or homicidal ideation. The results and the projected outcomes have great similarities thus showing the treatment was effective. During the assessment, it is essential to alert him that other forms of therapy are necessary to manage the pain in the long-term (Hollander et al., 2020). For example, he needs heat and physical therapy and chiropractic.
Ethical Issues Affecting Treatment
Ethical issues affect treatment by ensuring that providers comply with various requirements to provide high-quality treatment (Stahl, 2013). One of the ethical issues is to educate the patient about the treatment to receive informed consent from them (Hollander et al., 2020). A provider should also ensure that all decisions are patient-centered with no intention to harm them. For example, the medication with the least side effects should be selected. Patient autonomy is also necessary to observe (Staal et al., 2019). Ethical requirements state that patients should not be forced or coerced. A clinician should also educate a patient and assess their condition to their safety.
Conclusion
Treatment and management of regional pain disorder require careful analysis and assessment. One of the best medications is Savella at various doses depending on the patient outcomes. Providers should also make decisions depending on the outcomes to improve positive results and minimize side effects. It is essential to educate a patient that they require other forms of treatment to manage the condition in the long-term. Ethical issues also affect communication and treatment. The purpose is to provide treatment to patients to ensure they carry out activities with minimal pain and support.

References
Birklein, F., Ajit, S. K., Goebel, A., Perez, R. S., & Sommer, C. (2018). Complex regional pain syndrome phenotypic characteristics and potential biomarkers. Nature Reviews Neurology, 14(5), 272. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2018.20
Chevreau, M., Romand, X., Gaudin, P., Juvin, R., & Baillet, A. (2017). Bisphosphonates for treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials versus placebo. Joint Bone Spine, 84(4), 393-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.03.009
Goh, E. L., Chidambaram, S., & Ma, D. (2017). Complex regional pain syndrome: a recent update. Burns & Trauma, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41038-016-0066-4
Hollander, M., de Jong, J., Onghena, P., & Vlaeyen, J. W. (2020). Generalization of exposure in vivo in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 124, 103511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.103511
Staal, J. B., Klomp, F. P., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. (2019). Pain exposure to physical therapy in complex regional pain syndrome: promising enough to warrant further investigation. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 66(1), 115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12630-018-1174-3
Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

200432 Commercial Law Assessment Two

August 20th, 2020

Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 1
SCHOOL OF LAW
200432 Commercial Law
Quarter 3 2020
Assessment 2: Problem question (essay) (1500 words) (25 marks)
This document consists of 6 pages including this page.
PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION
PROVIDED CAREFULLY BEFORE ATTEMPTING THE QUESTION.
1. INDIVIDUAL PROBLEM QUESTIONS
The answers are to be completed by an individual student. This assessment task has a
maximum of 1500 words. Students who do not submit their own work, appropriately
referenced, may be subject to student misconduct proceedings. Further information about
referencing including resources are set out below.
All students are required to learn how to use Turnitin well in advance of the due date for
submission. Difficulty using Turnitin at the last minute will not be accepted as an excuse for
missing the deadline (except in the event of a verifiable problem with our systems at the
relevant time).
Students MUST KEEP A HARD COPY of the answer submitted to Turnitin.
2. DUE DATE
11 pm Friday 21 August 2020.
3. RETURN OF ASSESSMENT MATERIAL
Your answer(s), with feedback, can be viewed on vUWS once they are released. Students will
be notified via vUWS when this occurs.
4. CRITERIA AND GENERAL ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS
The following will be assessed in your answer:
Learning Outcomes 2 and 3:
2. Identify and demonstrate understanding of key legal concepts.
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 2
3. Apply knowledge and understanding of common law and statutory tortious, contractual
concepts in order to analyse and solve practical problems.
Presentation & style:
• Organises a clear and coherent answer
• Write clearly, accurately and grammatically
• Punctuates appropriately.
Content and knowledge:
• Identifies and explains the relevant area of common law and statutory legal systems
• Integrates relevant cases and legislation to support their answer to the legal problem
• Applies the legal principles and legislation to the facts of the legal problem
• Concludes the answer to the legal problems, including any defences, remedies or
penalties.
Submission requirements:
Word length A word limit of 1500 words has been set, which excludes references. The
word limit will be strictly enforced. There will be a 1-mark penalty for every
100 words in excess of the word limit, or part thereof. For example, an
essay that is 1851 words long will be deducted 4 marks. Please
remember that this essay has been structured so that a well-considered
and scholarly written essay may be achieved within the prescribed word
limit.
Format There are strict formatting requirements with which students are required
to comply. The unit coordinator reserves the right to refuse to mark
essays that are not submitted in accordance with formatting
requirements:
 Do not manipulate the margins of the page.
 Use Arial 12-point font.
 Essays must be one and a half spaced or double spaced.
 Ensure your full name and student number appears on the
footer of each page.
 Number all pages consecutively.
 Provide a reference list or bibliography.
 Answer format: Students should use the IRAC/ILAC method of
answering the question, ie, Issue, Rule/Law, Application and
Conclusion.
 NOTE: You must use decided cases and/or statutes to support
your answers.
Referencing Referencing must be in accordance with the Harvard WesternSydU
style. See:
https://library.westernsydney.edu.au/main/guides/referencingcitation
Only
Electronic
submission/
Turnitin
Students are required to keep a hard copy and electronic copy of all
written work, which is submitted. The essay must be submitted
electronically via the Commercial Law (PG) Essay Turnitin link on the
vUWS site for this unit. Please read the Turnitin Instruction Manual prior
to submission. Students may not hand in hard copies. No other method
of essay submission will be accepted. Further information in regard to the
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 3
submission of the essay will be posted in the assessment folder of the
vUWS page.
NO Essay cover sheet
Please do NOT affix an Essay Cover Sheet to your essay. By uploading a
submission into Turnitin students certify that: (1) they hold a copy of the
essay, if the original is lost or damaged; (2) no part of this essay or product
has been copied from any other student’s work or from any other source,
except where due acknowledgement is made in the essay; (3) no part of the
essay/product has been written/produced for the student by any other
person, except where collaboration has been authorised by the unit lecturer
concerned; and (4) they are aware that this work may be reproduced and
submitted to plagiarism detection software programs for the purpose of
detecting possible plagiarism ,which may retain a copy on its database for
future plagiarism checking.
Late
submission
Late essays must be submitted to the Late Commercial Law (PG) Essay
Turnitin link on the vUWS site for this unit. No other method of late essay
submission will be accepted.
A student, who submits a late assessment without approval for an
extension, will be penalised by 10% per day up to 10 days, i.e. marks
equal to 10% of the essay’s weight will be deducted as a ‘flat rate’ from
the mark awarded. For example, as the essay has a possible highest
mark of 25, the student’s awarded mark will have 2.5 marks deducted for
each late day. Saturday and Sunday are counted as two days.
Assessments will not be accepted after the marked assessment task has
been returned to students, who submitted the task on time.
Extension of
due date for
submission
The essay is to be submitted via Turnitin by the due date and appointed
time. Extensions will only be granted in the event of serious illness or
serious misadventure (proved to the satisfaction of the unit coordinator)
that prevents you from completing the assessment by the due date.
If students need to apply for a short extension of time to complete an
assessment item, they should complete the ‘Request for Extension’ form
available from the vUWS website at Student Forms. This form needs to
be submitted three days before the due date of the essay. An
application for an extension does not automatically mean that an
extension will be approved. Please notify your unit coordinator via email that you have applied, as notification of e-forms can take up to 48 hours.
Where special consideration is sought for circumstances involving more
than three consecutive days or more than five days within a teaching
period, students should complete a ‘Special Consideration During
Teaching Session’ application available through eForms via MyUWS.
Marking criteria and standards:
Fail (0-49%) The student’s performance fails to satisfy the learning requirements
specified. For example, poor knowledge or application of the law, irrelevant
discussion, poor standard of presentation and inaccurate referencing.
Pass (50-
64%)
The student’s performance satisfies all of the basic learning requirements
specified and provides a sound basis for proceeding to higher-level studies
in the subject area. The student’s performance could be described as
satisfactory.
Credit (65-
74%)
The student’s performance, in addition to satisfying all of the basic learning
requirements specified, demonstrates insight and ability in analysing and
applying relevant skills and concepts. The student’s performance could be
described as better than competent.
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 4
Distinction
(75-84%)
The student’s performance, in addition to satisfying all of the basic learning
requirements, demonstrates distinctive insight and ability in analysing and
applying relevant skills and concepts, and shows a well-developed ability
to synthesise, integrate and evaluate knowledge. The student’s
performance could be described as distinguished.
High
distinction
(85%+)
The student’s performance, in addition to satisfying all of the basic learning
requirements, demonstrates distinctive insight and ability in analysing and
applying relevant skills and concepts, and shows exceptional ability to
synthesise, integrate and evaluate the law. The student’s performance
could be described as outstanding.
QUESTION 1 15 Marks
Mojo Animals Pty Ltd owns and operates a small travelling show which it takes on
tour throughout regional Australia. It employed Pablo Ramirez as an animal trainer.
He has been working with the show for the past five years. As part of his
employment agreement with Mojo, he provides and maintains the animals and
equipment he uses in his act.
In August last year the travelling show manager, Elita Milano, insisted that Pablo
make his act more exciting. She also directed that Pablo should use her 19-year-old
nephew, Jeremy, in his act to help make it more exciting. She said that Jeremy was
a born acrobat and was very passionate about animals. She also added that
although Mojo was not prepared to employ any new person for the show, the
experience would be very helpful for Jeremy to find a job he would love in the future.
Part of Pablo’s act involved the use of elephants who paraded around the ring while
chimpanzees balanced on their backs doing various tricks. To make the act more
exciting Pablo decided that Jeremy should do handstands and other acrobatic
manoeuvres on the back of the lead elephant. The changes to the act were very
successful and Jeremy became more and more daring in his acrobatics. However,
during one of the performances Jeremy fell from the back of the elephant. He
suffered serious knee injuries and had several fractured ribs. Jeremy would not have
fallen if Pablo had provided him with a safety harness. He was unconscious when he
was rushed by ambulance to the Sunnydale Hospital. Jeremy’s mother, Lauren, who
was in the audience during Jeremy’s performance, suffered a profound shock and
developed a recognised psychiatric illness.
After admission to the hospital, Jeremy underwent a major surgery of knee
replacement. During this surgery the surgeon caused significant damage to his
nerves and incorrectly inserted the prosthesis which rendered him unable to walk.
Jeremy and Lauren have approached you for advice as to who they can sue in these
circumstances and the likelihood of success if they sue in the tort of negligence.
Advise the parties.

Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 5
QUESTION 2 10 Marks
John and Natalie are a married couple, who wished to purchase a country motel
business. They had no previous experience in motels or in running a business of any
kind. They attended a seminar at which experts from the motel industry and
professional people spoke of its brighter aspects but also warned of the importance
of occupancy rate to financial viability. John had worked for many years in the
accounts payables department of a large company. Although not a qualified
accountant his duties provided him with bookkeeping experience, some
understanding of figure work and costing. Natalie previously worked as a receptionist
for some nine or more years. They had available $40,000 together with the proceeds
of sale of their family home.
After an initial contact over some other proposition which did not come to anything,
Mrs Wentworth offered John and Natalie, on behalf of a Mr Holgate (the seller) the
business at Burradoone for $100,000 of which only $15,000 was for goodwill.
Early in their encounter Mrs Wentworth told John and Natalie that she had owned
motels herself and had a lot of experience in the motel business and that she would
find them a motel. She told them that she had sold a lot of motels, had not sold a bad
one, and could help them by recommending a finance broker. John told her that he
would also be “relying on an accountant’s opinion”.
The motel at Burradoone comprised 15 units which were newly built by the seller,
together with a shop. The seller had operated the business for a mere 12 weeks.
The reason for the sale was that Mr Holgate was recently diagnosed with cancer and
was severely affected by his illness.
Mr Holgate owned the land and had built the shop and motel encouraged by the
demand expressed to him by tourists. However, at the time of the sale of the
business it was operating unprofitably. All the figures were disclosed to John and
Natalie.
John and Natalie were told and knew that the business had to be built up to be a
success.
In the promotional material disseminated by John and Natalie after taking
possession, Burradoone was described as “offering activities such as bowls, tennis,
golf, a winery and day trips to historic and quaint places. Burradoone is a quiet little
rural town nestled on the arm of Lake Edon amidst some of New South Wales’ most
beautiful countryside. Lake Edon offers a sporting paradise of fishing, skiing, sailing
and swimming. The beautiful countryside provides scenic drives, horse riding and
bush walking.”
The area had all these attractions or at least might be thought to have had them. The
trouble was that at the time the business was purchased there was very little water in
Lake Edon.
Commercial Law (PG) Unit Code 200432 Q3 2020 – Assessment Two
Page 6
Before signing the contract Mrs Wentworth told John and Natalie that buying the
business was a once in a lifetime opportunity, that Mr Holgate would not be selling it
save for his ill health, that the business had year-round trade because December to
February was a holiday season, April was Easter time, then there were school
holidays. She told them the business had great potential, that if she was not
otherwise currently engaged she would consider buying it herself, that it was a
bargain basement price and that once you get going it will be a gold mine.
Unfortunately within six months John and Natalie cannot afford to pay the outgoings
let alone make some money to live on.
Advise John and Natalie fully of their chances of pursuing negligence claims only
against Mrs Wentworth.
QUESTIONS END HERE.

REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION AND FOREST DEGRADATION

July 25th, 2020

REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION AND FOREST DEGRADATION

(REDD) Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
REDD is a project that was first negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in the year 2005. The primary objective or mission of coming up with the plan was to be able to mitigate all the cases of climate change by ensuring that there was a reduction in the emissions that came in the form of greenhouse gases. This involves taking part in the enhancement of forest management especially in the countries that are still developing. Some decisions made under REDD were made witnessed in the year 2013 and ended in the year 2015 at a time when they had to put them down in the rulebook.
International Efforts in Strengthening Climate Governance and Finance
Researchers have conducted studies to find out the extent to which the forests have been degraded and the rate at which the greenhouse emissions are affecting the environment. The results show that about 29% of the greenhouse gases are emitted yearly, and this affects the climate change rate which will not be easy to control if it gets out of hand (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). In that case, the intention of reducing the emissions and also taking part in better land use has been a way of trying to meet all the objectives that have been set by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The idea and issue of international climate governance have become complex as most countries are now finding ways of ensuring that the climate is conducive to human survival. Many usually are not sure about the initiatives that they have put in place especially when they realize that the funds are not enough to make everything possible. For instance, some countries have opted to make use of regulatory instruments which are backed up by some market-based solutions that include the use of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (Gabriele, 1996, p2281).
Some of the other efforts that have put in place to deal with the issue of climate governance and finance have been seen the proliferation of some specialized institutions that operate on an international basis while at the same dealing with the issue of climate change. In that case, there have been institutional fragmentations to ensure that each of them has a mission to accomplish when it comes to getting funds what will be used in providing an assurance that the greenhouses gases are reduced to a great extent. In addition to this, most international institutions are now beginning to realize that climate change is a serious issue and therefore needs to be put in place for sustainable development (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). This involves taking part in agriculture and also asking for more action from other sectors.
The other international efforts when it comes to climate governance have been experienced in the form of partnerships that are created daily in various countries and foreign clubs. The main aim, in this case, is to mitigate the instances of climate change and also learn how to adapt to climate-resilient development. The transitional actions that come in this form are therefore aiming at doing global governance of the climate and also making sure that all the negations that were established under UNFCCC are fulfilled. This comes because numbers of scholars have realized that partnerships and fragmentation of polycentric approaches have become more coherent in top-down initiative or by the use of monocentric governance systems.
The international efforts that focus on climate finance can be looked from the perspective of bodies such as UN which has sections that deal with the funds that are collected and aside from the management of climate. The most effective action, in this case, was seen at the time when there was a meeting in Paris to discuss some of the ways the climate would be managed by not only making practical actions by also collecting funds on how to make everything real and possible. In that case, some countries have set aside a kitty where funds are collected after every month to be able to implement all the initiatives that have been put in place when it comes to governance of climate change. For instance, the International Climate Change (ICC) committees have tried hard to make sure that countries are self-sufficient financially so that any command or rule that comes from the UN can be fulfilled without delay or compromise of any nature.
The past few years have shown the emergence of different forms of transnational climate actions which have raised some controversies and questions on whether the fragmentations that come due to climate change governance are real and applicable. This has led to some conflicts that arise between regimes that complain of the infinity that comes out of the transactional costs. There are also some Non-State actions that have led to public response acts that are currently seen to take part in unwarranted governance and privatization of all sorts (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). Therefore, there has been a need to be able to better all the transnational and international bodies as a way of encouraging the non-state actors to be able to make all the contributions that they have towards governance of the climate and making it be at the right state and nature.
Some scholars have been able to come up with international suggestions on how the climate can be governed and also financed for a better future. For instance, Gabriele (1996) stated that there was a need to come up with a registry that would be used to recognize all the non-state efforts when it comes to climate change mitigation initiatives. They also added that there is a need to identify actions of the small bodies that take part in creating awareness on some of the ways the climate can be kept at the right state without having to cut down trees that would, later on, leave the land bare. The idea of sharing knowledge and also maintaining a legit form of transparency was also a suggestion that came from the scholars as they needed to see an internationally recognizable act concerning climate change financing.
After all the suggestions were put across, others such as Bashmakov (1996) stated that all the registry made out of recognizing the non-state claimed governance bodies should be embedded to form a better or comprehensive framework that will be able to mobilize further actions. The new bodies will then be able to take part in information exchange and creating networks that will help them in getting funds for issues related to climate change mitigation. The bodies will also be a partisan of ensuring that the quality of the data is high and will be at the best position to verify the subnational initiatives that have been put in place as a way of taking part in international climate governance.
Potential Shaping of Future of Climate and Clean Energy
The international efforts aimed at mitigating climate change seem to be beneficial when looked from the perspective of the future implications. The efforts have been put across to be able to have clean energy and also a climate that is conducive to human survival. Some of the initiatives that have been put in place are in the form of Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement and also the REDD initiatives (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). All countries have their ways of implementing these initiatives, and there is a lot of determination to see that everything will be successful. Many scholars desired to have a picture of the way the climate will be in the future with most of them having speculations of the forms of energy is clean, and also the climate change process is lower than they have been.
The efforts will, therefore, shape the future of climate and clean energy making everyone to adapt to the initiative that will be put in place. The future will have a climate characteristic that is not vulnerable to all the harmful activities that lead to depletion of resources. This means that there will be a reduced rate of sea-level encroachment and also the issues of food insecurity will be alleviated to a great extent. For instance, all the REDD initiatives will have a positive impact in shaping the future of climate and having efficient forms of energy (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). The initiates will lead to having a climate that can be able to support all the livelihoods, take care of all the different points of the eco-systems and also ensure that there is a reservation of the different parts of biodiversity. This means there will be more discussions conducted between REDD and all the initiatives that have been set aside to increase the number of research projects in that line.
UNFCCC Efforts Based on a “Bottom-up” Focus
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) is a treaty that was put in place in the year 1992. The body was formed to be able to take part in the stabilization of all the different types of greenhouse gases and to reduce the effects that the gases would pose on the future people’s livelihoods. This was in the race to ensure that anthropogenic interference of the climate system was reduced and taken to sustainable levels. After the adoption of the treaty, it went ahead to ensure that there were no binding limits when it came to the use and emission of greenhouse gasses from the various counties that were a part of it. The treaty works alongside other treaties to make sure that the initiative is a success and that those who go against its provision are punished using the set standards.
UNFCCC has some efforts when it comes to implementing all the motives and intentions of REDD. The body had the determination of making sure that all the greenhouse gases were limited and replaced with gases that were clean and had no effect on biodiversity. Therefore in the race to make this possible, it was able to come up with Kyoto Protocol which was a body that was supposed to set targets on how the developing countries would be able to follow all the rules that are related to climate change.
UNFCCC also came up with Intended Nationally Determined Contributions body as a way of still meeting the objectives of the treaty. The body, in this case, was supposed to ensure that all the measures were put in place as a way of reducing emission and also doing away with events of deforestation were legit and acceptable by the law. This means that all countries were provided with the freedom to ensure that all the climate mitigation measures were appropriate from a national perspective. Also, they were supposed to be flexible and also adaptable after being tailored in all major sectors.
UNFCCC has been on the front line to make sure that all the matters regarding climate change are implemented in the best way possible without leaving aside any suggestions that seem to be factual and legit. In that case, the other efforts that it has made regarding climate change and having clean energy has been based on the creation of awareness. The awareness has been on making all the stakeholders and government institutions to realize that there is a problem that needs to be solved and if it gets out of hand, then the future will not be better for anyone (Bashmakov, 1996, p58). The awareness programs have been aired on televisions via different media houses, and there have been campaigns and days set aside to make everyone realize the benefits of mitigating climate change.
UNFCCC has also tried to make a mainstream of its objectives concerning all the national planning and development processes. All countries have the mission of developing and getting to a high status and industrialization is the order of the day and technology is the main driving force of the economy. As all these initiatives are being put in place, UNFCCC wants the officials and people responsible for implementing the ideas of having clean gases being emitted into the air at all times. The buildings and industries that are coming up from the planning processes are supposed to be able to put in place mechanisms that will do away with the greenhouse gases. The plans that the government and stakeholders are developing are supposed to do away with the issues of deforestation. There are better ways of getting land to construct buildings, and they include reclaiming abandoned land and rehabilitating them to a state that can be used by all.
The efforts that have been put in place by UNFCCC include the creation of better and stable links between national and subnational governments that have plans oriented to climate change. Most of the subnational governments have been in the front line to make sure that the initiatives and programs related to climate change mitigation are handled using the available resources (Bashmakov, 1996, p50). They act as the executing bodies since they are much closer to the industries and sections that tend to release too much greenhouse gases. For instance, the industries that take part in the processing of coal products emit too much carbon dioxide, and this poses a great danger to those who are living in such areas.
There have been some climate policies set aside by UNFCCC, and most of them need to be implemented on a monthly basis. UNFCCC, therefore, makes this possible by using personal and agencies working in the climate change mitigation departments to be able to make everything a reality. A lot of teamwork is needed in making such initiatives possible because they are worldwide. For instance, the policies have been facing a problem of resource constraints which need the national governments to intervene to provide finances and the necessary support in that matter. The amount of time required for this to take place is determined by the body as it has all the details concerning the nature and extent of environmental destruction.
UNFCCC has been directing the newly allocated funds to the all the developing countries so that they can be in the position of supporting the initiatives that have been put in place when it comes to climate change (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). All the industrialized nations have been attached to an agreement that was formed under the convention to support all the activities that involve in climate change mitigating concerning the developing counties. They have therefore been able to offer financial support to the countries since they cannot depend on themselves. The financial aid is done by making use of grants and loans that are managed by Global Environment Facility. The industrialized countries have also tried to share all that they have regarding technicality so that the developing countries can be at per with the essay writers goals set in that line.
UNFCCC also ensures that all the developing and industrialized countries submit a report on their climate change initiatives and measures that they have put in place with respect whatever has been set out in the Kyoto Protocol (Baranov, 1994, p80). The countries are also urged to avail a report of the inventory based on the greenhouse missions while using 1990 as the base year. This means that each state is supposed to show an improvement whenever it is submitting a report. All the developing countries are supposed to adopt all the climate change initiatives and also be able to assess the impact of being in line with the protocols that have been set. Those counties that show positive progress are supposed to share the same strategies with countries that have not been able to meet the established standards of climate change mitigation. UNFCCC acknowledges the fact that there are countries that are vulnerable to climate change and therefore makes sure that it has come up with special calls that will help in dealing with the consequences.
Standards, Methodologies, Empirical Evidence and Science Content.
Climate change mitigation refers to the actions that have been put in place to reduce the extent or the long-term effects of the transformations in climate. Mitigation involves cutting the activities of the humans when it comes to the emission of greenhouse gasses. Mitigation is a move that many organization and individuals have been trying to achieve since the long-term effects of the activity are always not friendly (Baranov, 1994, p80). Some nations have always tried to increase the number of carbon sinks by taking part in reforestation activities. This is according to the needs and demands of REDD which focuses on reduction in deforestation.
REDD is also on the notion that people should find a way of adapting to the global warming so that they can be able to manage all the impacts that come along with it. Global warming has been proved to be an irreversible process, and that means people have to be ready to face the consequence of the process. The best way to do this is by making sure that there are better ways of being in line with the requirements and needs to identify the factors that will lead to its reduction. For example, some nations have gone ahead to construct dikes as a way of responding to the sea levels that are increasing rapidly.
Some of the other climate mitigation approaches include doing away with all the activities the lead to the excessive emission of carbon that entails the nuclear energy and adopting better and renewable sources of energy that such as solar energy and wind energy. There is also the expansion of forests to ensure that the carbon sinks are many and that the entire carbons dioxide is removed from the atmosphere (Baranov, 1994, p85). The forest is the best carbon sinks, and therefore all governments should try and come up with a way in which they can be able to maintain high standards of the environment. Energy efficiency has been a better a way of mitigating climate change because it means the people will be using the current sources of energy in suitable ways. Buildings should be insulated as a way of promoting energy efficiency especially when the process of geoengineering is put in place.
UNFCCC has been known to be the primary treaty when it comes to climate mitigation, and that means it should be embraced and all the rules that it avails should be implied as fast as possible. The climate is changing at a faster rate than the speed that people are applying to take it down. For instance, in the year 2010, all those who had agreed to be parties of UNFCCC came up with a campaign that was supposed to reduce the global warming effect to below 2 degree Celsius which was relative amount while focusing on the pre-industrial levels (Baranov, 1994, p89).
According to scientists, the 2 degree Celsius target can only be attained if the annual global emissions are taken down before the year 2020. The year 2050 should have the emissions being at levels that are 50% lower than they have been over the past the ten decades (Baranov, 1994, p90). Even though all these initiatives are already under an implementation process, analysis from the United Nations Environment Programme stated that the policies are too weak and therefore meeting the target will not be an easy task. These claims came after research that they conducted to determine the number of countries that are in line with the initiative. They realized that only 5% of the nations that signed the treaty are doing all that they can to make everything a success. Global warming is affecting the whole planet, and that means all the countries should be participants when it comes to bringing it down. Some companies are now providing volunteering services to make sure that climate change mitigation is a daily activity and it is taken as a regular event that people should accept as part of their life.
Human activities that entail the burning of coal and different components of the oil are the main factors that increase the rate at which the earth is becoming warm. The gasses that trap heat in the atmosphere will keep on growing so long as humans are taking part in activities that promote them. The gases will remain constant without any change because industrialization is real and people are keeping on cutting down trees as they are looking for space to construction companies and residential houses. The impact of the warming is common in many places, and some people have lost their lives due to the adverse effects that it poses (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 6). There are also those who have had the destruction of property as a result of global warming. The global warming has led to increased floods and landslides, and therefore many have fallen victims of such acts. Companies that take part in ground-breaking are also increasing the vulnerability of the earth is prone to earthquakes. Earthquakes are known to have adverse effects as they lead to many people losing their properties.
Many organizations are trying to reduce the impacts of climate change, but the real thing is that it is an issue or matter which cannot be avoided at all. The most severe effects of the process can only be avoided if people decide to live according to the set standards. The time that is available to make all the changes is limited as the number of industries is also growing every day. This means that the consequences of global warming and climate change are also getting too high levels. Some vehicles are currently being manufactured, and they seem to be ecologically friendly because they do not affect the environment with the emissions (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 6). They make use of clean gas and also use renewable sources of energy like solar. The problem is that the companies and organizations that are producing the vehicles are also emitting the greenhouse gases as they are taking part in the manufacturing processes.
The climate has been changing over the past few years, and there are some factors that have been used to show the kind of activity that is going on. There is climate change mitigation programs have been set up to make sure that the changes do not get out of hand. Those who are responsible for the changes in climate are not able to find out some of the ways they can make the environment to get back to the original state since they lack the best initiatives to put in place.
From empirical research conducted by NASA, there was evidence of climate change, and this was shown by the warming of the entire atmosphere. The greenhouse gases are leading to global warming while the trees that have been cut down due to land expansion activities that have left the land bear and food insecurity has become a significant problem. The global rise of temperatures is one of the empirical evidence that the climate change is real and is taking place at a fast rate. The estimated surface temperature of the planet is about 2.0 degrees Fahrenheit, and this has been rising from the 19th century (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 12). This change has been driven by the rising amounts of carbon dioxide. There are also other human emissions that have facilitated climate change, and they include chlorofluorocarbons.
The past 36 years has experienced significant warming cases with the year 2001 being on top of the list when it comes to the number of emissions. 2016 was also among the warmest years except June which is commonly known as the coldest months of the year. The oceans are also becoming warm, and this is another indication of the fact that climate change is rapid and is getting to uncontrollable heights. The oceans have taken much of the heat to a state where it is currently standing at 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit.
The shirking ice sheets are also a sign of global warming where Greenland and even the Antarctic ice sheets have ended up showing a decrease in mass. NASA availed some data that showed Greenland had lost over 250 cubic kilometers of ice between the year 2002 and the year 2006. On the other hand, Antarctic lost over 152 cubic kilometers of ice in the same years. The loss of the ice is a clear indication that they are melting away due to the warmth and hence the ocean levels are going to rise (Centre for Energy Efficiency, 1996, para 7). The process of glacial retreat is taking place in some raised lands such as the Alpos, Alaska, Andes, Himalayas and also in some parts of Africa.
The snow cover has also decreased in that the climate has become warm and they are also melting away to give room for the heat increasing at an uncontrollable rate. According to empirical evidence coming from the satellite, the Northern Hemisphere shows a decrease in the ice cover as this has been happening rapidly over the past five decades. The sea level is also rising rapidly, and this can be seen from the 8 inches rise over the past few centuries. This is followed by the arctic seas which have shown a decline due to the high temperatures. Ocean acidification is the clear proof that climate change needs to undergo a mitigation process to make it get back to a normal or original state. The industrial revolution led to an increased level of acidity in the surface oceans by 30 percent (Government of Russia 1995, p56). The fact that humans are taking part in activities that lead to the emission of more carbon dioxide shows that the acidity is not likely to go down.
Employ Case Studies
There have some case studies conducted to check on the rate at which countries and regions in Russia have adopted the climate change initiatives since it is the most affected when it comes to such events. Russia has been trying hard to comply with the set standards and all the protocols that aim at mitigating issues of climate change since it is among the most industrialized nations (Gritsevich, 1996, p9). A case study on An Industrial Energy Efficient Program at the “Moscabelmet” Company in Russia is an example of some of the ways the country has been trying to mitigate matters related to climate change.
According to the case study, there is a need to maintain focus on energy efficiency having in mind that it is an important issue when it comes to economic health concerning industrial enterprise. The Russia enterprises have been able to increase the rate at which they are maintaining energy efficiency to be able to gain economic stability and rapid growth in various sectors. Moscabelmet is a company in Russia known in the production of aluminium and copper commodities. The company has over 1500 workers, and each of them is working in a sector that makes use of energy in the most efficient manner (Gritsevich, 1996, p9). The company is energy-intensive, and that means it consumes over 55 million kWh and 549,000 Gj of heat. This high consumption of heat energy to the depletion of natural resources as it tries to maintain its relevance and to meet the demand of the people as much as it can.
The company has been promoting the activities of climate change mitigation by coming up with an information system that is used in running all the energy consuming facilities. Also, the company also came up with an energy monitoring system so that it can be able to stop areas that seem to use a lot of energy at a time. The company has also maintained the fact that people are supposed to use vehicles that are emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere while they are heading to work. The main aim is to make sure that it acts as an example to all other countries and companies that have the intention of mitigating climate change (Millhone, 1997, p34). The company also takes part in an evaluation of how it has been able to make the moves of climate change mitigation a success. The assessments make it able to identify the areas that need an adjustment and also compare it with provisions of UNFCCC.
After taking part in such activities, the company has been able to make the country to gain economically. Some of the improvements that have been seen in Russia after putting in place the climate change mitigation programs are that most of the companies have been able to reduce the production process. This is where small amounts of money are needed to make sure that the plants running the heat producing machines are replaced (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). There is also a reduction in the production of water that usually comes from the industries. There has been the installation of return water temperature controls when it comes to the optimization of hot water. Almost all shops in the industries have been installed with machines that control the energy intensity as a way of using energy more efficiently.
The country has also experienced some environmental benefits after putting in place all the initiatives and ideas that came from Moscablemet company. These benefits can be observed when it comes to the emission of greenhouse and cutting down of trees in the process of deforestation. There has been a reduction in the emissions as they are only indirectly taking place since the annual consumption of energy in the firms has also gone down. The reduction in the use of consumption of potable water has also led to a decrease in the discharge of waste and other materials that are known to pollute the environment. At the moment, Moscabelmet is known as the model company when it comes to the reduction of cost and emission of greenhouse gasses in the country.
Russia intends to take over the technique that has been used by the company so that it can expand it further. This mesa that it realized the benefits of having a clean nation that has no polluted environments and therefore wants to maintain it. For the project to be expanded the county has had to put in place some measures. For instance, it has to do an energy audit of all the places that seem to be experiencing great cases of pollution and emissions. The audits will also cut across areas that are vulnerable to deforestation and environment degradation. There will be a need to ensure that all the energy monitoring systems are developed and implemented as per the set rules and standards. The enterprise energy will also need to be restructured depending on the findings that will come out of the audits that will be conducted in the year. The operating regimes will need to be changed to be able to install those that have been found to be efficient. An automated energy control system will need to be introduced to be able to monitor all the changes that are taking place in the various fields of operation.
Even though there is a need to expand the various fields of operation hence it comes to climate change mitigation; some challenges might be first in making it a success. One of the difficulties, in this case, would be lack of funding since most of the climate change mitigation programs need a lot of financial needs. Lack of experience is the other barrier that implements the mitigation process to be difficult (Goic, 2011, p878). There are instances when the government needs to provide people with incentives so that they can be motivated and take part in the activities that help in reduction of environmentally unfriendly gases. Without the incentives, the government is not likely to be able to make the public to behave as per the rules that have been drafted.
In conclusion, for the world to have a touch of sustainable future, it will have to first focus on the economic incentives which are likely to reconcile with the environment and the nature of human well-being. There should be the promotion of conservation efforts that will help in ensuring that there is an aspect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). Most of the economic forces have led to an increased level of emission, and that has facilitated to over 20% of the greenhouse gases. Theretofore there is a need to embrace REDD because it seeks to address all the problems that have been caused by emission and deforestation activities. This means that forests are supposed to be valued as ecosystems that are living and those that are used to sink all the carbon that is already in the atmosphere. Conservation is supposed to be applied in almost all areas because it is commonly known to be an economic activity which is available and helpful to the environment.
The other reason as to why people should embrace the provision of REDD is the fact that it is a way of getting only to handle emissions that are verifiable and that also promotes activities that benefit the forest and the people who are depending on the forests as a source of income and living. REDD can alleviate the crisis at hand in that all the forests that have been cut down will be restored to create more room for carbon sinking options. In short, there is a need to embrace this initiative because it works on the perspective of reducing leakage of the emissions, provides permanence in environmental control and also adds some of the options that people can use to meet or attain the same goals without affecting the ecological biodiversity.

References
Baranov, B 1994, “Automation Control System and Electric Power Quality Check at Moscabelmet” In Energy Efficiency, vol. 1, no.3.
Bashmakov, II 1996, System of Institutional Measures to Stimulate Energy Efficiency in Russia as a Part of the GHG Mitigation Strategy, CENEf, Moscow.
Center for Energy Efficiency 1996, Russian Energy Picture, July-September CENEf, Moscow.
Government of Russia 1995. Energy Strategy of Russia. Major Provisions. Moscow.
Gritsevich, I 1996, “Concept of Russian Federation Transition to Sustainable Development.” In Energy Efficiency, vol. 3, no. 10.
Millhone, J P 1997, Report to Joint Coordinating Committee on the US-Russian Climate Change Country Study. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Gabriele CH 1996, “Detecting Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change with an Optimal Fingerprint Method,” Journal of Climate, 2281-2306
Goic, R 2011, “A Review of Climate Change, mitigation and adaptation.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol 16, Issue 1, pp 878-897

Program Design & Problem Solving Assignment-02: Data Structure

July 6th, 2020

TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
PROJECT-02/1
“dits-dahs”
Input Standard Input & File
Output Standard Output
Problem Description
Swallow Reef, also known as Pulau Layang-Layang, is an oceanic atoll of the Spratly Islands
administered by Malaysia, which is situated approximately 300 kilometres northwest of Kota Kinabalu,
Sabah. The atoll is about 7 km long and 2 km wide. There is a lighthouse on the atoll that sends weather
and security conditions periodically to the mainland. Due to the long distance and atmospheric
surroundings which are not conducive to modern telecommunications, the only means of
communication is by using Morse Code over a low powered radio transceiver.
Morse code is a method used in telecommunication to encode text characters as standardized sequences
of two different signal durations, called dots and dashes or dits and dahs. Morse code is named
after Samuel Morse, an inventor of the telegraph. The International Morse Code encodes the 26 English
letters A through Z, some non-English letters, the Arabic numerals (ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
and 9 ) and small set of punctuation and procedural signals (prosigns). There is no distinction between
upper and lower case letters. The following figure shows a list of Morse codes for characters, symbols
and Arabic numerals.
Figure 1 – Morse Code – Letters conversion
Morse Code needs trained and experienced officers to be able to communicate efficiently and not easy
to obtain as Morse Code usage is getting less and lesser by time. Thus it is best to have a program that
can encode and decode Morse messages so that any officer can read or send them in plain text. Your
task is to create the java program to help officer to encode and decode the code Morse. You must use
appropriate data structure for all Morse code (as in Fig 1) by ensuring that each code is unique.
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
PROJECT-02/2
Although in real life, the codes are send as sounds, in this program, dots are written as “.” and
dashes/dahs are “-“. Letters are separated by a space, while one word to another are separated by two
spaces.
The program should print a menu to perform three main process; sending, receiving and display all
letters and Morse code.
i. The sending part should be able to encode or convert any letters in Fig 1 to Morse Code and
ready to be sent across to the other side. Every message must starts with “VV” or “…- …-” and
ends with “EOM” or “. — –” . To ensure the integrity of each message, a transmission summary
must be appended after the “EOM” marker. The summary must contain:
1. Number of lines in the message.
2. Number of words
3. Number of Alphabets
4. Number of Symbols
5. Number of numbers (Arabic numerals)
An “EOT” marker must be put at the end of the transmission summary.
ii. The receiving part should be able to decode the Morse message and transmission summary into
readable letters. For the verification purposes, a summary analysis will be generated based on
the decoded message to be compared with the transmission summary from the sender. The
comparison will print out “Consistent Summary” if the two messages equal, otherwise print
“Inconsistent Summary”.
iii. Display all letters and Morse Code part should print out all letters with Morse code in the
format of 5 output in a row using one of the data structure traversal method. (Hint: use format
“t” in the print statement to make space in between output)
Sample Input-output table shows the example of valid input with the corresponding output. Your
program need to consider the invalid input.
You can refer to any online link to check the result of decode and encode the Morse Code. (example:
https://morsecode.world/international/translator.html )
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
PROJECT-02/3
Sample Input/output
Input Output
1
VV
Sunny sky
wind 40 knots
temp 35C
EOM
…- …-
… ..- -. -. -.– … -.- -.–
.– .. -. -.. ….- —– -.- -. — – …
– . — .–. …– ….. -.-.
. — —
…..
—-.
…– .—-
—–
….-
. — –
Menu:
1. Send Morse Message
2. Receive Morse Message
3. Print Letters and Morse Code
4. Exit
Input code:
2
…- …-
… ..- -. -. -.– … -.- -.–
.– .. -. -.. ….- —– -.- -. — – …
– . — .–. …– ….. -.-.
. — —
…..
—-.
…– .—-
—–
….-
. — –
VV
SUNNY SKY
WIND 40 KNOTS
TEMP 35C
EOM
5
9
31
0
4
EOT
5 9 31 0 4
Result: Consistent Summary
Menu:
1. Send Morse Message
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
PROJECT-02/4
2. Receive Morse Message
3. Print Letters and Morse Code
4. Exit
Input code:
3 5 ….. H …. 4 ….- S … V …-
3 …– I .. F ..-. U ..- ? ..–..
2 ..— E . L .-.. ” .-..-. R .-.
. .-.-.- A .- P .–. @ .–.-. W .–
J .— ‘ .—-. 1 .—- 6 -…. – -….-
B -… = -…- D -.. X -..- N -.
C -.-. ; -.-.-. ! -.-.– K -.- ( -.–.
) -.–.- Y -.– T – 7 –… Z –..
, –..– G –. Q –.- M — : —…
8 —.. O — 9 —-. 0 —–
Menu:
1. Send Morse Message
2. Receive Morse Message
3. Print Letters and Morse Code
4. Exit
Input code:
4 Bye dits-dahs..
TTTK1143: Rekabentuk Aturcara & Penyelesaian Masalah / Program Design & Problem Solving
Assignment-02: Data Structure
PROJECT-02/5
DELIVERABLES AND SUBMISSION
Your report should include the following information submitted in 2 files:
File Named & format file Details Percentage
1 _File1.pdf 1. Describes all data structures
used in dits-dahs problem.
2. Illustrates the structure of
Morse Code after insert all the
letters used.
3. Describes all classes used in
dits-dahs (list all attributes and
methods involve in each class
and state the objective).
4. Algorithm for:
i. Main method
ii. Encode method
iii. Decode method
iv. Display all letters and
Morse code.
5. Any assumptions that you
made.
6. Input-Output Screen short
10% Markah
2 _File2.dat 7. Data Files
3 _filename1.java
_filename2.java
_filename3.java
8. Full Java codes of dits-dahs. 20% Markah
Jumlah 30%
Zipped all files and submit to UKMFolio by 3/7/2020 before 5pm.
-SELAMAT MAJU JAYA-