Archive for the ‘Main’ Category

Malawi’s HSSP 2023-2028

Tuesday, February 16th, 2021

Malawi’s HSSP 2023-2028

Introduction
The need for better health care services is a major problem in many African countries. Malawi is among the countries that need reforms in the health sector. With a population of around 17.5million registered in the 2018 census by the national statistical office of Malawi, there is an estimated upwards growth by 2.8% per year, which requires a strategic plan in healthcare. Malawi featuring among third-world countries, the Australian government is ready to help it come up with a better health care plan. In this case, there is a need to revise current Malawi’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP) II 2017-2022 to 2023-2028 HSSP.
Analysis of current Malawi’s healthcare plan
Health information systems.
Malawi’s data collection system has been strengthened by the ability of the ministry of health (MOH) to use the Health Management Information System (HMIS). This data transmission level is a success through the District Health Information Software (DHIS2), which offers valuable central data collection for the government. The weakness in such a system has been witnessed in the Malawi health sector’s private facilities. Many hospitals do not relay real-time data as they rely on manual transmission of data from clinics, which may be biased. There is an opportunity by the government to install web-based applications that can serve real-time data to the national health grid. The data transmission using a cloud-based system may face challenges from the available IT infrastructure. The poor network system in rural areas hinders the government from advancing its technology to health clinics and dispensaries.
Leadership and governance
The whole health system in Malawi is dependent on the national and district level of leadership. Through the office of the president and cabinet, there have been efforts made by technical working groups (TWGs) like the Individual Performance Agreements (IPAs), which ensures regular checks on issues about health. On the district level, the MOH entrusts District Health Management Teams (DHMTs to manage hospitals. However, these leadership services at the district levels are not sufficient since they are overworked. There is a plan to improve the working structure by training public health experts on leadership and assigning them to their relevant hospitals within their localities. This move is a nightmare to the government because it sites inadequate funds to initiate more training and stipend funds for salaries.
Analysis of internal factors
Healthcare services
Several health service provisions in Malawi are aimed at improving the lives of people. These include reproductive and adolescent health, maternal and child health etc. There has been a rise in teenage pregnancies leading to 143/1000 live births among adolescent girls (MOH, 2017). The government has strengthened the efforts to combat unwanted and early pregnancies by providing free contraceptives, which has shown a significant decline in the fertility rate of 4.3 by 2018. However, there has been resistance from a society based on contraceptives because of early marriage customs performed by some tribes. The government has a chance to improve awareness by sensitizing communities about the importance of family planning. The challenges facing the government in its plan to curb crude abortions are well stipulated by the ignorance of people towards learning.
Maternal and child healthcare have improved since more women attend clinics and later follow the government’s rule to deliver in hospitals rather than at home. This maternal care has improved since the government increased dispensaries around the country. Child health has improved since 70% of the facilities follow the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), which has helped curb regular child illnesses. There are still improvements to be done because the death rate for infants is still high. The government could leverage the integrated community case management to distribute child care services to more rural areas.
Diseases such as HIV&AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis still pose a danger in Malawi. The government provides free antiretroviral therapy to the people. This effort has resulted in 86% successful testing of people with HIV, while 96% being suppressive of the virus in 2017(MOH, 2017). Tuberculosis is associated with HIV infections, which is well countered by the government. However, malaria remains untamed due to the favorable tropical climate in Malawi that hosts the deadly mosquitoes. Through NGOs, the government can reach out to people by donating mosquito nets as a preventive measure.
Major health system capacity concerns in Malawi
1. Healthcare infrastructure
As the population grows, there is a need for expansion in terms of healthcare infrastructure. Malawi has a poor network of hospital infrastructure. It is estimated that 24% of facilities have an ambulance. Also, an approximated service area of 8km2 per hospital is a poor way of delivering services. With the few hospitals in place, there is inadequate hospital equipment like water, toilets, electricity and technical tools. The existing facilities face demolitions over poor maintenance.
2. Human resource
There are no enough nurses, doctors and other health practitioners in Malawi. To have a better service delivery, the government needs enough expertise to deliver the services in hospitals. With few skilled clinical psychologists and consultant psychiatrists, these positions indicate the health sector’s dire situation in Malawi. In 2016 there was a vacant position for 8,457 practitioners in the health sector. This figure is huge at the same time, not adequate to ensure better service delivery.
3. Health Financing
According to UNICEF, the government expenditure on health by 2018/2019FY was US$35 million. The financial muscles in Malawi have been poor, leading to lower service delivery and strained expenditure on running costs. The financial expenditure per capita is standing at $10.4 US dollar, which is against the WHO standards of $86 US dollar. This means that there is an 8.2 gap in capital expenditure, which makes healthcare incapacitated. There is a need for improved donor funding, which would act as a healthcare stimulus program to revive nonprofit hospital facilities that rely on charity.
The government needs to include proper planning in ensuring many people are trained in the relevant fields and careers regarding health and hiring them. The government also needs to ensure there is an upwards trend in building new hospitals and upgrading existing district hospitals. The most important of all is the finances. The government should allocate more money to the health sector, which would boost general operations in the health sector.
Health priority based on demographic problems
According to the national statistics on deadly diseases, HIW&AIDS still ravages through Malawi with no sign of decline. An estimated one million people were found to be HIV positive in 2018 by UNAIDS. This is a high number that depicts the current state of health in the entire region. HIV remains the number one cause of more deaths in Malawi than any other disease. The government should plan how to counter this problem in the next HSSP. All the strategies used to tame the spread of HIV should be revisited and new policies to be drafted towards the fight of this disease.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the Australian government should learn the existing challenges in Malawi’s healthcare infrastructure, healthcare funding, Healthcare information system, human resource, and, most importantly, the resources to fight HIV. The provision of funds to Malawi would improve the capacity of the government to handle these challenges. Also, the partnership between research institutions in Australia and Malawi will advance studies on diseases affecting people. With any help from the Australian government, Malawi will one day realize its potential in handling HSSP.

References
Chersich, M. F., Newbatt, E., Ng’oma, K., & de Zoysa, I. (2018). UNICEF’s contribution to the adoption and implementation of option B+ for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a policy analysis. Globalization and Health, 14(1), 55.
Government of the Republic of Malawi. (2017). Health Sector Strategic Plan II (2017-2022)

BLAW1002 SEMESTER 2 2020 – ASSESSMENT 3: LEGAL CASE STUDY – SHORT QUESTION AND ANSWER

Monday, November 30th, 2020

BLAW1002 SEMESTER 2 2020 – ASSESSMENT 3: LEGAL CASE STUDY – SHORT QUESTION AND ANSWER (40 MARKS)
For this assessment, students are to apply the concepts taught in the law modules for the unit (modules 9, 10 and 11) to a case study (Commonwealth Bank of Australia: The Unwitting Mule) and answer four short answer questions. To best answer these questions, students may be required to research beyond the principles taught in the lectures and tutorials, and will be required to reference any external material that is used to form the substance of their answers.
In breaking down the marks that are available for this assessment, each question is worth 9 marks for a total of 36 marks for the content portion of the assignment. The remaining 4 marks are awarded for the use of referencing and the structure / presentation of assignment submissions. Students are to integrate a completed cover page (a template is provided on blackboard) into their assignment document and submit their assignment file in soft copy format to a turnitin link in blackboard. A hard copy version of your assignment is not required to be submitted to your lecturer or tutor.
Assessment Questions
Read the Commonwealth Bank of Australia: The Unwitting Mule case study and answer the following questions:
1. What areas of law are pertinent to this case study? Describe what the identified areas of law cover, and explain how they are relevant to the issues raised in the case study. (9 marks)
2. What is the business structure of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA)? What does this structure say of the duties that the bank’s directors owe to its stakeholders, and how have the directors breached those duties by allowing the conduct that is detailed in the case study. (9 marks)
3. Describe the regulatory responsibility of AUSTRAC in the context of this case. What changes (if any) to the scope of their responsibility were brought about by the findings of the 2018 Royal Commission into the Banking sector. (9 marks)
4. What business risks were ignored by the CBA executives, and what good governance and compliance practices could have been implemented to alleviate these risks? (9 marks)
Below is the marking rubric which will be used to grade your submission:
Question 1 – Relevant areas of law 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a sound ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
Question 2 –
Business
Structure of
bank 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or ability to apply 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in 4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a sound ability to apply 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
those concepts in answering the question. answering the question.
those concepts in answering the question.
Question 3 –
Regulatory responsibility of
AUSTRAC 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a sound ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
Question 4 – Business risks,
Good Governance and Compliance 0 – 2 marks
Very limited knowledge of topic with significant gaps between what was covered and what answer should have addressed.
Answer shows no conceptual understanding, or 2 – 4 marks
Limited knowledge of topic and will not have discussed relevant points in much detail.
Answer shows a general lack of conceptual understanding, or ability to apply those concepts in 4 – 5 marks
Reasonable knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or what was discussed often lacks detail.
Demonstrates a
reasonable conceptual understanding and a 5 – 7 marks
Good knowledge of topic but may not have discussed all relevant points in answer, or will have discussed all relevant points but will occasionally lack detail.
Mostly demonstrates a high level conceptual understanding and a very good ability to apply those 7 – 9 marks
Comprehensive/detailed knowledge of topic with discussion of all relevant points in answer. Consistently
demonstrates an excellent conceptual understanding and an outstanding ability to apply those concepts in answering the question.
/
9
ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. answering the question.
sound ability to apply those concepts in answering the question. concepts in answering the question.
Referencing/Str ucture/ Presentation 0 marks
Cover page not included.
Incoherent writing style with structure not appropriate to short answer format. Recurrent grammar, formatting and spelling mistakes.
No in-text referencing or reference list provided. 1 mark
Cover page not included. Largely incoherent writing style with structure not appropriate to short answer format. Recurrent grammar, formatting and spelling mistakes. Either in-text referencing or reference list missing. 2 marks
Cover page may / may not have been included. Good writing style with structure appropriate to short answer format.
Inconsistent grammar, formatting and spelling applied. In-text referencing and reference list incomplete or contains errors. 3 marks
Cover page included. Very good writing style with structure largely appropriate to short answer format. Grammar, formatting and spelling mostly accurate. In-
text referencing and reference list provided that accords with Chicago referencing system. 4 marks
Cover page included. Fluent writing style with structure appropriate to short answer format. Grammar, formatting and spelling accurate
(little to no mistakes).
In-text referencing and reference list provided that accords with Chicago referencing system.
/
4
Referencing and appropriate acknowledgement of sources
Most often errors in referencing are incidental or clearly inadvertent. In the event of a level one incident of plagiarism occurring, a student may be contacted by the University and required to undertake further training or remedial work in relation to referencing. Where the lack of correct referencing appears to contravene the University policy on plagiarism, the student’s paper will be referred to the Unit Coordinator and dealt with according to University policy. This may amount to academic misconduct.
An important aspect of the University Plagiarism Policy is recognition that not all plagiarism incidents are intentional or involves cheating. If students are not learning as expected, they will be made aware of their difficulties and helped to improve. Those who deliberately choose to cheat by way of plagiarism, however, will be identified and dealt with accordingly.
Students are strongly advised to understand their responsibilities in relation to correct referencing and should consult the unit outline and the referencing information in the Learning Hub section of the Blackboard site.
Format of assignments
Assignments cannot be handwritten and must comply with the following format requirements. Those assignments, which do not conform to these requirements without prior agreement of the unit coordinator, will either be returned to the student unmarked or will have marks deducted:
Document type: Word or pdf (pdf preferred).
Font: Arial or similar font – no smaller than 12 point in size.
Pages: Numbered in top or bottom margin.
Spacing: Appropriate line spacing and paragraph spacing.
Margins: At least 2.5 cm top, left, right & bottom.
Labelling of assignment file: Should include student’s Curtin ID number, their first and last names, and the title of the assignment (BLAW1002 Assessment 3 – Legal Case Study).
Presentation
A well-presented assessment will consider and meet the following criteria:
• Cover sheet (located on Blackboard under the ‘Assessment’ tab) must be completed and integrated into your assignment document (The system will only allow you to submit one file so you won’t be able to submit your cover page and assignment document separately).
• Appropriate sentence structure.
• Correct grammar, spelling and punctuation.
• Paragraph size and breaks appropriate.
• Consistent format.
• Appropriate use of headings and sub-headings.
• Within acceptable word limit.
• Appropriate referencing and acknowledgment of sources.
Word Limit
The total assignment should be a minimum of 2,500 words and not exceed 3,000 words.
Please provide a word count on your cover sheet. A penalty of 10% will be imposed on assignments that exceed the word limit. Markers however, have the discretion as to whether to apply the penalty for an additional 100 words, provided the discussion remains relevant. The assignment will not be assessed if it exceeds 3,250 words and will result in a ZERO mark.
The word count does not include the following:
• cover sheet;
• in-text referencing;
• referencing list; and
• headings or sub-headings.
Submission of Assignment Document
Please read the submission process carefully. Students should understand that compliance with instructions in relation to an assessment task is critical. Students MUST be aware that non-compliance with submission instructions can result in a mark of ZERO.
All assignments must be submitted by Friday, 6 November 2020 by 1PM (WST), unless an extension for legitimate reasons has been granted by the unit cocoordinator prior to the deadline.
Students are required to submit their assignment to Blackboard through a link provided in the ‘Assessment’ folder titled ‘Assessment 3 – Legal Case Study’. Submission links will be set up for each mode / location in which this unit is being studied for the relevant study period (e.g. Bentley Internal, Fully Online, Miri etc.), so please ensure that you submit your assignment document to the correct link.
The assignment will automatically be submitted to the plagiarism detection program, Turnitin. Please ensure that the version of your assignment submitted to the system is the final version and not an incomplete draft, as the version of your assignment that is in the system at the time the deadline passes will be the version that is marked for assessment purposes (even if it was a draft version that was inadvertently submitted).
Feedback on Assignments
All of the teaching staff are available to assist you with your learning in this unit. You should contact your lecturer or tutor if you need help understanding the course material or issues arising in the assignment. There is also a staffed Ed forum available for students to ask questions of the teaching team. You can also contact the unit coordinator if you are still unable to get the answer you are seeking. Please allow 48 hours (two working days) for a response to your query.
Unfortunately, it is just not possible for the teaching staff to review draft assignments for comment before submission as it is in effect double marking that would give some students an unfair advantage over others. If you require help with your assignment, either narrow the question or section of work to specific questions such as “what is meant by this part of the question?” or “do the areas of law pertain to a particular part of the Module 9 lecture?” Questions such as “have I done this part right?” or “should I include a discussion about this regulator in question 4?” will not be answered as any answer provided by the lecturer or tutor would directly/indirectly impact the mark that the querying student would receive for the assessment, causing the unfairness referred to above.
This assignment will be marked using a rubric, which will be provided to students ahead of time. In addition to providing the set feedback to students that is contained in the rubric, markers will also offer individual comments on what a student had done well and what they could have done better to earn a higher mark.
Assessments submitted early will not be marked before the due date. Please refer to the unit outline for the full procedure in relation to penalties for late submission and requests for an extension.

Assessment IND301A: Industry Consulting Project

Monday, November 30th, 2020

ASSESSMENT 3 BRIEF
Subject Code and Title IND301A: Industry Consulting Project
Assessment Personal Goals and LPA reflection report
Individual/Group Individual
Length 1,000 words (+/- 10%)
Learning Outcomes e) Demonstrate the ability to critically reflect on work integrated learning activities and self-identify personal goals and learning needs
Submission By 11:55pm AEST/AEDT Sunday Week 11
Weighting 30%
Total Marks 100 marks
Context:
Goal setting and the ability to openly and critically reflect are important skills that can significantly enhance your career development. Goal setting needs to be done systematically and reflection is an essential part of the continual learning process, which in-turn is crucial to your ongoing relevance and employability.
This report will help you formulate your current goals and personal learning needs and can become a template for regular future goal/learning need reviews going forward. For example, you can develop a new version of this report for your personal use at the end of each year to help guide your ongoing development. You must use your Laurate Professional Assessment (LPA). You might also incorporate your Gallup Reports.
Instructions:
You are required to:
• develop a 1,000 word Personal Goals and LPA Reflection report that is professionally presented and with appropriate, numbered headings and sub-headings
• include an Executive Summary (not included in the word count)
• commence with a short Introduction to the paper that outlines the purpose and structure
• include a short, referenced statement of the role/importance of both goal setting and reflection in career development
Ind301a_Assessment_3 Page 1 of 4
• Include at least 3 Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Timely (SMART) personal goals
• Include at least 3 workplace examples from your 200 hours of workplace experience that caused you to reflect and a description of that reflection
• Cite and reference at least 3 sources from the modules in this subject
• Include your LPA results (and possibly Gallup results) and some reflection on how they relate to your goals and workplace reflection(above)
• Conclude with a statement of personal commitment to both future goal setting and regular reflection
Note that appendices may be used and are not included in the word count.
Submission Instructions:
Submit the assessment via the Assessment link, in the main navigation menu, in IND301A, by the end of week 11. The facilitator will provide feedback via the Grade Centre in the LMS portal. Feedback can be viewed in My Grades.

Community Change and Advocacy

Wednesday, November 18th, 2020

Community Change and Advocacy
Advocacy is integral in community change and has been effective in resolving some of the issues affecting society. Despite being around for numerous decades it is vital to note that the essence of advocacy has remained constant. Advocacy is the buttress of community change and with critical consideration of the advocacy principles, the effects on social change are manifest as well as defined roles of human service professionals.
Principles of Advocacy
One of the principles of advocacy is clarity of purpose. The clarity of intent sets the aims and objectives of the advocacy process. In the clarity of purpose, it is possible for one to comprehend what is intended by carrying out the advocacy process and consequently understand the impact that it can have on society. Confidentiality is another aspect or principle of advocacy. Privacy is critical, for it ensures that the issue being addressed receives the attention that is required. With confidentiality, it is possible to have people bearing confidence in answering the questions outlined at the beginning of the advocacy. To understand some of the issues affecting society, it is essential to go around a neighborhood with questionnaires and if the respondents feel safe through assured confidentiality, then there is the assurance of quality advocacy.
Another principle of advocacy is empowerment. Empowerment in advocacy means that it is possible for people to understand the importance of change and consequently engage in activities that seek to improve the state of the problematic matter. Through community empowerment, there is the creation of social bonds that can prove sufficient to individuals and groups even after the completion of a project. Empowerment also ensures that individuals manage their activities better and can set a platform for a better growing population in the fast-changing modern environment.
How Advocacy Affects Social Change
Advocacy is integral in having social change, and this is because of the manner that it affects the environment. When social groups come together, seeking to have a particular aspect in society changing, people note the importance of this and act accordingly to ensure that there is the improvement needed. Without advocacy, people would ignore some of the problems that affect society, and the consequent of this is a rotting environment.
Politicians and celebrities are some of the most prevalent influencers of social change through advocacy. The reason why they are the major influencers is the fact that they are recognized and respected for their work and the consequent of this is people paying attention to issues that they raise. It has been noted that changes take place in a somewhat positive manner when these groups of people are involved in advocacy.
Advocacy also affects social change, depending on the severity of the matter. For example, there is advocacy to see to it that the number of tobacco users in Lebanon reduces significantly. The use of the drug in the stated country has been on the rise with young adolescents beginning the use of the drug at a very young age (Community Tool Box, 2019). Increased advocacy against the use of the drug is critical, and the consequent of this is having a rather progressive society and general health improvement for the population.
Another example is relating to sexual violence and the need to mitigate the problem. Sexual abuse is an aspect that has affected the African community for numerous years. Most of the issues presented in the environment relating to sexual violence are not well addressed. Young girls that are sexually offended fear coming out and talking about their experiences for they fear discrimination (Community Tool Box, 2019). It is essential to ensure that the community stands up to assist these young girls, restore their confidence, and have them talking about their experiences to identify the perpetrators, punish them, and reduce the violence.
Role of Human Service Professionals in Advocacy
A human service worker is quite essential in the modern environment, and this is more, especially in advocacy. A quality and professional human service designation assumes the responsibility of pushing for the resolution of some of the social problems affecting the environment. One of the significant characteristics of a human service profession is the urge to assist others in the issues that they face in a social domain or setting.
A human service profession is trained in the role of advocating for social change, and one advantage that he or she has over a typical individual that lacks the training is efficiency in convincing. Regardless of the issue at hand, it is vital to note that humans are rather resilient to change and do not wish to see things deterred from the norm. Human resource professionals always ensure that they identify aspects that will effectively change the mentality of these people. Through the change, it is possible to have improved society.
Another role that these professionals have in advocacy is the identification, and the incorporation of the best channels through the advocated matter can get to the public. Due to their training, it is possible for these professionals to note the best strategies to pass information. Through the approach, there is the assurance that people will receive the information that is being promoted. The modern environment has seen human service professionalism being a rather lucrative job title and this owing to the numerous challenges affecting society. These professionals ought to receive respect owing to issues that they face in their work and the most common of this is hostility.
Advocacy should be a concept that is incorporated in the current environment if the change is to happen in a positive light. Through advocacy, the various issues affecting the society are resolved in a rather professional manner. Advocacy is not only for the sake of the modern environment but also for generations to come.
References
Community Tool Box (2019). Advocacy for Tobacco Policy Change in Lebanon. Retrieved on 12th July. https://ctb.ku.edu/en/advocating-change/examples/example6
Community Tool Box (2019). Together for Girls: Working to End Sexual Violence. Retrieved on 12th July. https://ctb.ku.edu/en/advocating-change/examples/example8

Research Proposal

Friday, October 16th, 2020

Research Proposal
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Introduction
An interest in a Bachelor’s Degree in Political Science in Public Universities located in California would provide me with an estimated 32 options as provided by the College Scorecard provided by the U.S Department of Education (College Scorecard, 2020). The data collected for this particular website is provided through the federal reports from institutions, the information on federal financial aid, and the tax data. The Scorecard incorporated several indicators that were not provided earlier by institutions of higher education. Therefore, a potential student can make comparisons of the schools using the indicators to inform their decisions on the university they want.
The Reliability and Validity of the Collected Information
Considering the information was collected through the federal reports from institutions, on respective financial aid, and the tax information, it is proper to state that the information is valid. This is because the schools are expected to present accurate information used in the formulation of those reports. The reliability of the collected information relates to the consistency in the measures. In this case, one is to consider the indicators for comparison. Currently, the website considered the earnings of students getting federal financial aid, repayment period for student loans, typical debt loans, graduates from the school thus getting those who dropped across income bands and by gender. These indicators are similar for all the schools listed on the website increasing the reliability of information collected.
Additional Research Research Areas for the Political Science Program
Most of the information provided by the Scorecard is primarily median data and ranges of distinct metrics and hence very difficult to have similar outcomes (Williams, 2018). Other research areas to be considered include the success rate of university students in achieving good living standards from that particular program, the states which the successful graduates live, how satisfied are the students with the curriculum and the learning hours, and specific earnings of the program in different regions.
The collection of this additional information required in conducting secondary research using surveys and shared information on social media platforms. The current digital era has many people sharing their experiences in different universities. While these views are subjective, they could provide insight into the program’s curriculum and learning schedules. Furthermore, the research could also use other college information platforms such as the Department of Labor Career tool will also provide further information required.
The data collection method to be improvised is the survey technique. The method will gather information through a web-based questionnaire that will list important questions related to the research purpose. The survey questions include the range of costs incurred during the university period, whether the learning schedules were flexible enough to incorporate volunteering activities or part-time jobs, the ease or difficulty in getting an internship or employment opportunity on the course, did the program and university play a significant role in aligning the individual with their career goals, has the working environment incorporated the lessons learned in school, and whether the student loans are an extreme burden to repay considering the average salaries one had gotten over time. Furthermore, the research will also look at the diversity incorporated in school and the class. The question is whether the school environment was diverse enough to understand the different experiences related to the program and the development of social life. Is the location of the school conducive enough for the program such as the access of other organizations that provide learning experiences.
For each of the questions, a Likert scale is to be improvised. This method looks into attitudes and opinions and the respondent will use a tick or dot sign to illustrate their level of agreement. After the data collection, the analysis of the data will follow the cross-tabulation method that will utilize basic tabular forms. Inferences are to be drawn from the different data sets included in the research (Surendran, 2019).
Significance Test
A test of significance is prudent in determining the claims about a parameter that is not known. The significance test utilizes the information for the evaluation of a hypothesis through a comparison of sample points of parameters to the values in the hypothesis. A statistically significant test is one that illustrates a low probability that outcome occurred just by chance. In this case, the variable from the College Scorecard to be considered is the average salaries that graduates of the selected program and specific school earn. This is compared to the content and the strategy improvised by the school in discussing the curriculum.
It considers the learning environment, its diversity, and the flexibility to allow the students to visit real situations and apply the knowledge learned in school. An efficient learning environment that focussed on practical situations equivalently to theory learning makes it easier for the students as they assimilate into their working environments in school. These students achieve higher competency levels that attract better remuneration compared to those who cannot apply the knowledge in real-life situations. A test of significance is hence essential for the two variables.
External and Internal Validity, Potential Threats, and methods to be Improvised to Minimize them.
The internal validity of this research study is related to the extent to which the research will be in a position to establish a trustworthy cause and effect relationship between a treatment and its result (Cuncic, 20190. Internal validity is supposed to eliminate the possibility of having alternative explanations for the findings. For instance, in this research, the internal validity question could be whether the salaries that the individuals are getting are due to the conditions of their learning environments such as the flexibility and opportunity to practically implement the theory learned in class.
The potential threats to the internal validity question include the history threat which entails the specific events that have occurred between the first and second measurements. In this case, we are considering the period one was in school and the time they have earned salaries related to the program. These events have a potential likelihood of affecting the outcomes of interests such as behavioral changes, macroeconomic changes, or government interventions in particular sectors. To handle this threat, the research will incorporate randomization for the treatment and control group participants and also randomly selecting the participants who represent the population one wants to study.
The second threat to the research’s internal validity is the maturation threat which involves the effects that subjects have undergone with time (Cuncic, 2019). This threat potentially makes the scores go up in the post-tests compared to the pre-tests due to the maturing that the respondents have undergone. This maturation which happens more likely changes their self-perceptions, their efforts, and their views towards certain issues. Therefore, it becomes difficult to establish the cause and effect relationship between the two variables. To this effect, in handling the maturation threat, random assignment, and study protocol for the participants to accurately get the responses and any changes that have occurred that could impact the former (Cuncic, 2019).
On the issue of external validity, this involves how well the research’s outcome can be applied in distinct settings (Cuncic, 2019). It is about how generalizable these findings can be in terms of other people, situations, or periods. The potential threats to external validity include the reactive or interaction effect of testing (Yu, n.d.). This threat involves a pretest increasing or decreasing the sensitivity or responsiveness of the subject to the experimental variables. This process could use an inclusion and exclusion criteria where the research clearly defines the population one is studying in the research. This understanding of the research population ensures that one does understand their levels of sensitivity and responsiveness and the significance to the outcome in case any changes do occur.
The second threat is having participants that have done multiple treatments such that the multiple treatment interference makes it difficult for the research to control the impacts of prior treatments (Yu, n.d.). In handling this threat, the research needs to establish a psychological realism for the research. One could also improvise replication where the research is done again with different samples or settings to affirm the results. These two strategies will ensure that the respondents are not heavily influenced by the multiple treatments they have undergone.

References
Cuncic, A. (2019, February 25). Understanding internal and external validity. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/internal-and-external-validity-4584479
Surendran, A. (2019, December 9). Quantitative data: Definition, Types, analysis, and examples. Retrieved from https://www.questionpro.com/blog/quantitative-data/
US Department of Education. (2020). College Scorecard. Retrieved from https://collegescorecard.ed.gov/search/?state=CA&control=public&completion_rate=0.5..&cip4_degree=b&page=0&sort=completion_rate:desc
Williams, D. (2018, April 12). How the flawed earnings information in the college scorecard misleads students (opinion). Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2018/04/12/how-flawed-earnings-information-college-scorecard-misleads-students-opinion
Yu, C. (n.d.). Threats to the validity of the research design. Retrieved from https://web.pdx.edu/~stipakb/download/PA555/ResearchDesign.html

Difficulties experienced by team leads, tech managers, and CTOs

Friday, October 16th, 2020

Difficulties experienced by team leads, tech managers and CTOs
There are many challenges faced by the tech managers, CTOs, and team leads in spearheading projects and making sure that the information systems of organizations are safeguarded. The IT department in the current digital world is very important in business organizations since they are responsible for managing websites, ensuring data security, and building new products. The various challenges faced are discussed below.
Finding the right skill
Information technology is a skill-based field that requires the IT team leaders to hire the right people with the right skills to perform various functions such as system analysis, coding, and implementation. In the recent past, innovations have dominated the IT industry, and skills such as Artificial Intelligence, Data Science, and machine learning are essential in the business world. For this reason, a lot of business is facing a shortage in terms of IT personnel with the required skills. Therefore, the burden of finding people with such skills lies in the tech managers, CTOs, and Information Technology leads in business organizations (Stangarone, 2020).
Systems and Process
Proper systems and processes are key in making the work of Information Technology leaders easy. If a business organization has no proper systems and processes in place, the IT leaders can easily be overwhelmed with so many tasks to perform. Even though the IT leaders are responsible for technical teams, the process of implementation and the processing of new strategies to improve the current product, the initial IT leader has to create systems and processes from scratch. This can be very challenging for the IT leader (Stangarone, 2020).

Ensuring data security and privacy of consumers
Data Protection Act requires that all countries which are willing to do business with EU member countries to ensure that personal data is protected. Data protection and generally the security of data are left to the IT leaders. The tech manager, the CTOs, and the IT leads are responsible for business organizations to ensure that business and private data are protected and the privacy of consumer data is respected.
Protecting against the growing ransomware threat
In the current digital world, cyber-security is increasingly becoming a threat to business operations and causing losses to businesses across the globe. Ransomware is becoming a common type of threat, where CTOs, tech leads and IT leads must plan and implement ways of militating against ransomware. Ransomware is developed in such a way that it denies access to business systems and the developer’s demand for payment to allow for access.
Deciding on project resources
IT projects are not like other business-related projects. The IT projects require proper planning through system analysis, design, and implementation. In addition to that, IT projects are complex and sometimes ambiguous requiring certain tools for conceptualizing various stages of development of the software project such as decision trees for processes that involve making decisions. The burden of organizing and planning for the IT project resources in the business organizations is dependent on the tech managers, CTOs, and generally the leaders of the Information Technology department.

References
Stangarone, J. (2020). Challenges facing CIOs and IT leaders in 2020 – mrc’s Cup of Joe Blog. Retrieved 6 June 2020, from https://www.mrc-productivity.com/blog/2019/11/7-challenges-facing-cios-and-it-leaders-in-2020/
Aspira, C. (2020). Management Challenges For New Tech Leaders & Where Mentoring Helps – CTO Academy. Retrieved 6 June 2020, from https://cto.academy/5-management-challenges-for-new-tech-leaders-why-mentoring-can-be-a-crucial-bridge/

Public Communication, The case between Colin and the Daily Gazette

Friday, October 16th, 2020

Public Communication
The case between Colin and the Daily Gazette brings into light the challenges that members of the public face when stories about their lives are published by newspaper editors without their approval. Some stories are true and may push a person into the limelight positively, but other stories may be false and result in a scandal with the capacity to bring up legal action. Colin was a 22 years old student in college who managed to make a lot of money in a short period by inventing and selling an operating system known as Doors. This may have caused his former partner and roommate, Ralph to get jealous, and thus publish a false story to defame him.
As highlighted in Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S.323 (1974), a person is a public figure if they had clear evidence of fame, or notoriety in the community at large (Justina, 2020). They are to be pervasive in ordering how society runs and be of great influence. Colin never met any of these standards thus could not be deemed as being a public figure. He was just a college student that had sold a product that simply made him a lot of money in a short time. He did not meet the criteria of being a person of great influence in his society nor did he have anything to do with telling the people around him how to run their affairs. If Colin was to be categorized as a public figure for making a lot of money then all business owners worldwide would also be categorized as public figures. So Colin was right to argue that all he did was to invent and market a product like any other business owner worldwide would do.
However, after being sued, the Gazette emphasized that Colin was a public figure although he did not qualify legally to be deemed one. Therefore, at the contest, Colin should win the case because the gazette is wrong in its claim. In Gertz v. Robert, it is explained that simply having your story published by an editor in the newspaper just because your story is newsworthy does not amount a person to be a public figure. Most importantly news editors charged with libel cannot use their defense by converting private citizens into public figures because of covering their story in newspapers (Jewell,1994). The story published by the editor about Colin having cheated on his Political Science examination in his second year of college was even a lie from Ralph. As an editor, his nature or second job is that of being an impartial investigator.
When Ralph came to the Gazette’s editor with the story about Colin, the editor should have questioned his motives and investigated whether the story was true. News reporters and editors have ways and means to get the correct information and their employers provide them with resources to investigate the truth. Therefore it is clear that the editor did not do his due diligence to find the truth. He should have simply called Colin to ascertain his side of the story. In Levinsky’s Inc v. Walmart Stores Inc, 127 f 3d 122(1st Cir. 1997) the court held that all cases involving defamation require the plaintiff to prove negligence in the part of the defendant (Cornell Law school, 2019). As such, if Colin could prove to the court that the news editor portrayed neglect in editing the story, he had an upper hand. Luckily he had the proof because the story was false and he was never contacted regarding whether the story was true since it talked about his personal life in school. Thus, Colin would indeed win the case.

References
Cornell Law School. (2019). Defamation. LII / Legal Information Institute. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/defamation
Jewell, R. (1994). Libel and slander. Law Library – American Law and Legal Information – JRank Articles. https://law.jrank.org/pages/8240/Libel-Slander-PUBLIC-FIGURE-DOCTRINE-AN-UNWORKABLE-CONCEPT.html
Justia. (2020). Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323 (1974). Justia Law. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/418/323/

Cloud Services Essay

Friday, October 16th, 2020

Cloud Services
Forensic investigations have become more challenging with the increased sophistication of technology. Increased innovation has enabled fraudsters to use more sophisticated methods to steal and manipulate systems. As a result, this has proved to be a hard nut to crack for the forensic investigators. The emergence of new technologies, such as cloud computing, has improved connectivity within the forensics community. According to Daryabar et al. (2013), soon, digital forensics that incorporates cloud services will be vital in enhancing investigation through the exchange and preservation of data by forensic professionals making it possible to complete a survey with expedition. Notably, forensic investigations have, for a long time, experienced challenges and barriers. The challenges and barriers faced by forensic investigators include computer hardware issues that pose the risk of losing data, software challenges in cybercrime investigation, legal issues, identity theft, and the inability to gather data from different points and store them in a centralized location for the investigators. As Daryabar et al. (2013) indicate, the challenges make it impossible to have conduct coordinated and comprehensive investigation, thus incorporating cloud services will improve the management of criminal data in the interest of the criminal investigation. The adoption of cloud services in forensic investigations will make it possible to achieve digital forensics that manages forensic data from different investigations, thus making it possible to accomplish the forensic goals.
Impact of Changes in Technology on the Field of Digital Forensics
Changes in technology have made significant impacts on digital forensics. Therefore, there is a need to adopt the appropriate measures to counter the undesirable effects of technological changes. According to Quick and Choo (2014), technological changes in digital forensic have largely impacted modern law enforcement in areas such as government agencies, which have become more efficient. Importantly, there has been a rise in technological and mobile society, resulting in tremendous digital forensics growth. Therefore, changes in technology have eliminated some of the traditional challenges, thus improving the investigators. The barriers encountered in forensic investigations have been consistently reduced, thus streamlining operation. This has made it easy for professionals in this area to conduct investigations. For instance, FBI records show that case leads have decreased with the incorporation of digital examination. According to Moran-Perez (2020), In 2012, the FBI had 13,330 cases, but the lead was reduced to 6500 cases in 2003 due to the adoption of technology in the form of digital investigations.
Changes in technology have increased the capacity of law enforcement agencies to track criminals and assist victims. According to Quick and Choo (2014), improved technology makes it possible to analyze evidence, thus introducing links between criminals and their crime, thus making it possible to solve cases. More cases of cybercrime have been solved using the latest technology in digital forensics. A significant characteristic of cybercrimes is that criminals leave digital footprints of their activities, thus making it possible to track and catch up with them. For instance, technology has made it possible for tracking and assisting victims of child pornography. The increased use of personal computers has increased cases of child trafficking and pornography, thus expanding the scope of crime and the complexity of apprehending criminals (Moran-Perez, 2020). The internet has further increased and facilitated the distribution of child pornography content. However, changes in technology have increased digital forensic techniques and approaches that have effectively made it possible to track and arrest criminals involved with child trafficking and pornography.
Technological changes have also contributed to the reduction of online fraud through the increase of digital forensic tools. According to Daryabar et al. (2013), online fraud has gained a lot of mileage and public consciousness in the last decade. It is characterized by banking crimes and corporate insurance fraud, securities and commodities fraud, and identity fraud, thus overwhelming the police. Online fraud has topped as the most common complaint made to the internet crime complaint center. However, changes in technology have increased digital tools that enhance fast and reliable data and information acquisitions and analysis to track and convict cybercriminals, thus reducing the cyber fraud-related cases.
Impact of Cloud Services on the Field of Digital Forensics
Cloud services have positively impacted digital forensics in various areas, especially in evidence and data management. Cloud services have primarily contributed to the preservation of evidence and data in the interest of investigations. Data is stored remotely, thus ensuring that it is not interfered with or compromised by malicious parties to the investigation. Data acquisition from a cloud service provider is made by serving them with a court order (O’shaughnessy, and Keane, 2013). This helps in ensuring that such evidence can only be available to the right parties, thus effectively preserving it.
Cloud services in digital forensic enhance the implementation of surveys by supporting the identification of various evidence. This plays a critical role in the development of multiple theories relevant to the incident. Cloud services enhance the storage and preservation of fragile pieces of evidence such as evidence collected immediately after an incident and volatile memory for the investigations process (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). Under the cloud services, the investigator can identify potential evidence using the platform as a service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). Under the IaaS model, most of the evidence is available to the investigator since the customer can control the virtual applications, and operating systems. In the PaaS model, the customer is able to develop and deploy applications developed using programming languages, services, libraries, and tools supported by the provider (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). However the customer is not able to control and manage the underlying Infrastructure.
Cloud services in the digital forensic enable the investigators to search and collect evidence and relevant data related to various cases. The search and collection processes involve thorough analysis and evaluation of the system for digital evidence. Different analysis methods can be adopted. The investigator should know the location and arrangement of data in the cloud environment. This will ensure that they have sufficient data and evidenceevidence to present before the other criminal justice system (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). Therefore, the fact that cloud services stores all the collected evidence of different case enables the investigator to locate them without much efforts for the conviction of the criminals.
Differences
There are several significant differences in conducting forensic analysis compared to a situation where one is already holding devices that one has control over. First, the situation presents the difference in the scope and extent of the investigation. In forensic investigation, the investigator will go for any probable lead to the investigation to collect enough evidence for the crimes under investigation. In case the investigator has devices, he/she has control over, then they will exhaustively conduct investigations on the devices to retrieve the relevant evidence and data for their cases (Sammons, 2012). In this case, the investigators work on the devices and exploit the different leads to collect sufficient evidence and data for their cases. Secondly, the circumstances presented develop different levels and processes to access evidence and data. When conducting forensic analysis, they will have to liaise with external parties and seek approvals in accessing additional evidence to ensure that the analysis process is complete. On the other hand, when investigators have devices they have full control then, one will not have to seek permission and approvals in the course of analyzing them. In this case, they go straight to retrieving the evidence and data and conducting the relevant analysis.
Major Details and Methods
There different issues that affect cloud-based digital forensic. Cloud services’ multi-tenancy capability allows several clients to share physical server and use services provided by similar computing hardware and software simultaneously. This approach to access cloud services poses challenges of compromising investigators’ operations as they operate sensitive data (O’shaughnessy and Keane, 2013). Data provenance is dependent on the cloud service model used in the operations. This process entails the recording of the ownership of data as well as the processing of data history. This aspect is vital in digital forensic investigation. Therefore, investigators should adopt relevant models and effective storage management techniques.
Conclusion
The field of forensic investigation has changed gradually due to growth in technology. Particularly, innovations and emerging technologies have primarily contributed to the adoption of cloud based digital forensics across the globe. As technology continues to grow and become more sophisticated, investigators should be aware that fraudsters will become more complicated. They must therefore strive ti ensure that their methods remain at par with technology.

References
Daryabar, F., Dehghantanha, A., Udzir, N. I., Sani, N. F. B. M., Shamsuddin, S., & Norouzizadeh, F. (2013). A survey about impacts of cloud computing on digital forensics. International Journal of Cyber-Security and Digital Forensics, 2(2), 77-94.
Quick, D., & Choo, K. K. R. (2014). Impacts of increasing volume of digital forensic data: A survey and future research challenges. Digital Investigation, 11(4), 273-294.
Sammons, J. (2012). The basics of digital forensics: the primer for getting started in digital forensics. Elsevier.
O’shaughnessy, S., & Keane, A. (2013, January). Impact of cloud computing on digital forensic investigations. In Ifip international conference on digital forensics (pp. 291-303). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Moran-Perez, G. (2020, February 13). A timeline of outbreaks from 2000 to present. Retrieved from https://sundial.csun.edu/156361/news/a-timeline-of-outbreaks-from-2000-to-present/

OS and Application Security Strategy Essay

Wednesday, September 23rd, 2020

OS and Application Security Strategy
Name
Institution

OS and Application Security Strategy
One of the vulnerabilities is known as remote code execution (RCE). This vulnerability permits attackers to run arbitrary code on vulnerable workstations and servers remotely. Attackers can then carry out actions to exploit other susceptibilities. Remote code is the most common vulnerabilities currently found in OS, and it can lead to other attacks, encompassing elevation of privileges, and denial-of-service (Hesselman, 2019). RCE vulnerabilities are typically marked “critical” and should thus be patched instantly. The other vulnerability is known as Denial-of-Service (DoS). This is one of the main Microsoft STRIDE threats that make services such as Windows and browsers not able to function often. There are two kinds of DoS vulnerabilities: flood attacks and crash attacks. Flood attacks occur when a system gets excess requests, causing the services to slow down and ultimately stop (Yu, 2013). Other DoS attacks take advantage of vulnerabilities that create a service or system to crash. Spoofing is yet another vulnerability. Spoofing denotes the process of mimicking an individual by tampering with authentication, utilizing a password and username. Attackers can use spoofing to access confidential information on account of victims. Spoofing mainly takes place in applications that utilize the Chakra engine like Edge and Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.
Anti-malware solution operating systems it supports.
The Malware Protection Engine is recommended. This solution works by scanning all the new files to check for malware or threats. It supports Windows Defender and Microsoft Security Essentials. The Avira anti-virus is also recommended, and especially for DoS attacks. This anti-malware has a 3-layer protection scheme. The conventional malware scanner makes a comparison between files against a library of known threats. The heuristic monitoring explores code and watches for indications of an attack. It then scans the OS and blocks HTTP request attacks. This anti-malware supports Microsoft Windows Mobile 5.0 and Microsoft Windows Vista.
Intrusion detection system (IDS) solution and the reasoning for the recommendation
IDS is an essential component of a truly successful solution. It flags up incoming and outgoing malicious traffic so that an organization can take proactive steps to protect its network. In this regard, the recommended IDS is known as the SolarWinds Security Event Manager (SEM) Essay. This solution serves to augment efficiencies in administering, managing, and monitoring security policies as well as protecting an organization’s network (Kumar, Pattnaik & Pandey, 2017). This solution is suggested because it makes it easy to monitor, backup continually, forward or store log files, and encompasses built-in transit and storage encryption. More so, SEM is Studypro Essay Writing recommended because it is useful and keeps the IT staff informed so that they can respond quickly and accurately to a possible threat.
Control strategies for securing the company’s web-based infrastructure
Several strategies can be applied to secure the company’s web-based infrastructure. One of the approaches entails strengthening the management of patches and vulnerability assessment capabilities. These will help the company to promptly identify vulnerabilities that need to be tackled and connect them to patches that can be deployed to databases, servers, endpoints, and applications to remediate them. Another strategy entails taking advantage of Web Application Firewalls (WAFs). WAFs offer a vital line of defense for important applications and data by assessing user access to web applications that are critical to business and dealing with threats that are woven to website traffic that is innocent-looking (Buecker et al., 2016). Contrary to conventional firewalls that majorly regulate traffic based on ports and protocols they utilize, a WAF regulates access to web applications utilizing rules formulated to identify common attacks like SQL injection and cross-site scripting.
Control strategies for securing the company’s database infrastructure
One way of securing the company’s database infrastructure is to use database firewalls. These firewalls will thus disallow traffic access automatically. The only traffic that is permitted to pass through must come from a particular application or web servers that require data access. The firewall must also safeguard the database from instigating outgoing linkages except in cases where there is a specific requirement to do so (Tripathy, 2013). Another strategy pertains to data encryption. A majority of companies encrypt the data that is at rest, but in this case, the company needs to encrypt backup data. This data should then be stored in a different location from the decryption keys (not, for instance, stored in an encrypted form but next to the keys in plaintext). In addition to encrypting stored data, it is also vital to ensure that when sensitive information is moving over the network, it is in an encrypted format to safeguard against security threats in the database (Tripathy, 2013). Managing the database access tightly is yet another strategy. This entails minimizing the number of people that can access the database. For instance, administrators should only be given minimum privileges, they require to carry out their job functions, and only when they require access.
Two (2) items for operating system security hardening procedures
One of the operating system security hardening procedures is program cleanup. It entails getting rid of the unnecessary program. Each program is another possible entry point for an attacker. Cleaning these out assists in restricting the number of ways in. The other procedure is the utilization of service packs. This involves keeping up-to-date and installing the most recent versions of the organization’s operating system.

References
Buecker, A., Campos, A., Cutler, P., Hu, A., Jeremiah, G., Matsui, T., & Zarakowski, M. (2016). Endpoint security and compliance management design guide using IBM Tivoli endpoint manager. IBM StudyPro essay writing Redbooks.
Hesselman, C. (2019). Mobile wireless Middleware, operating systems and applications – Workshops: Mobilware 2009 workshops, Berlin, Germany, April 28-29, 2009, revised selected papers. Springer Science & Business Media.
Kumar, R., Pattnaik, P., & Pandey, P. (2017). Detecting and mitigating robotic cyber security risks. IGI Global.
Tripathy, B. (2013). Advances in secure computing, internet services, and applications. IGI Global.
Yu, S. (2013). Distributed denial of service attack and defense. Springer Science & Business Media.

Leadership and Supervision Action Plan Essay

Wednesday, September 23rd, 2020

Leadership and Supervision Action Plan
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

Leadership and Supervision Action Plan
Section 1
Developing Effective Organizational and Interpersonal Communication Skills
Goal 1: Be recognized by my associates as one with effective oral, written, and presentation capabilities when communicating about my worries, opinions, and interests, Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5. 1 – Appropriate, 2 – adequate, 3 – slightly better, 4 – great, and 5 – excellent (Congress, 2017). The goal will be achieved when all assessments get a score of four or higher.
Objective 1: I will request my close colleagues to share their opinions regarding my capacity to engage in effective oral and written communication when relaying my concerns, views, and interests. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5 used to match the goal above. I will request the colleagues to suggest areas that I need to improve.
Objective 2: I will apply the suggestions by the colleagues as noted in objective 1 above to amend my development plan. The goal is to improve the way that I use oral and written communication to express my opinions and interests. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5 to match goal 1 in one month.
Goal 2: Be recognized as a person with high levels of integrity and responsibility in the way that I communicate to my colleagues in a way that expresses my reliability, accountability, and self-discipline (Congress, 2017). Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5 with the aspects highlighted in goal 1. The goal will be attained when I score four or higher.
Objective 1: I will consider the satisfaction levels and views of my colleagues by requesting them to provide opinions to determine my ability to build confidence among them concerning reliability, accountability, and self-discipline. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1 to 5.
Objective 2: I will use the responses given to me in objective 1 above to make changes to my action plan. I should improve on how I build confidence among my colleagues during communication. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 that meet goal 2.
Managing Time and Tasks Effectively
Goal 1: Be known as a person who keeps time and handles tasks appropriately within the set frameworks and standards (Tuten, Morris-Compton, Abrefa-Gyan, Hwang, & Harrington, 2016). Evaluation Method: Semantic differential scale with combinations of reliable v. unreliable, timely v. untimely, effective v. ineffective. The goal will be attained with positive responses.
Objective 1: I will rely on my supervisor to provide opinions regarding my ability to keep time and handle tasks appropriately. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with the aspects of goal 1.
Objective 2: I will use the responses provided by the supervisor to change my action plan for improvement. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale meeting positive targets of goal 1.
Goal 2: I will be recognized as a person who abides by the set schedules and timelines without failure in all my tasks. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with the same combinations as in goal 1. The goal will be achieved with positive reactions.
Objective 1: I will check my previous tasks to see if they were completed within the set timelines and schedules. Evaluation method: Semantic differentials scale to give a positive notion of the result.
Objective 2: I will check with my supervisor regarding my performance concerning adhering to deadlines. Evaluation method; semantic differentials scale. Objective will be achieved with positive response.
Managing Different Personalities and Traits
Goal 1: Identify and handle different personalities and traits depicted by my colleagues (Congress, 2017). Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with elements of 1-strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree. The goal will be achieved with a score of 4 or above.
Objective 1: I will rely on my colleagues for responses. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 to respond to this; “I am able to handle your personalities and traits” using the elements in goal 1. They will also provide recommendations for improvement.
Objective 2: I will use the responses given by my colleagues to conduct amendments to my action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on the elements in goal 1 with a score of four and above.
Goal 2: Distinguish my colleagues based on their personalities and traits into an ambitious and amiable, anxious warrior, and their temperaments ((Tuten et al., 2016). Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on elements in goal 1 with the statement “I am aware of your personalities and traits”. The goal is achieved when the score is 4 or above.
Objective 1: Compare my understanding of colleagues’ personalities with what they say in their responses. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with focus on elements in goal 2.
Objective 2: I will use the variations noted through the responses in objective 1 to change the action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with focus on goal 2 elements.
Hiring, Performance Evaluation, Disciplinary Action, and Termination
Goal 1: Be capable of executing my employment and retaining process effectively through proper methods of hiring and performance assessment (Congress, 2017). Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations of effective v. ineffective, appropriate v. inappropriate, capable v. incapable, and competent, v. incompetent. The goal is achieved with positive reactions.
Objective 1: Compare my actions with the best rated hiring and performance evaluation processes. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations that help achieve goal 1.
Objective 1: Rely on my colleagues’ responses regarding my hiring and performance evaluation approaches. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with the same combination as goal 1.
Goal 2: Execute appropriate disciplinary actions and use the correct process of job termination. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations as in goal 1. The goal will be achieved with positive responses.
Objective 1: Compare my practices with the best-ranked approaches for executing disciplinary action and terminations. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale.
Objective 2: Request my colleagues to give views regarding my method of issuing disciplinary actions and terminating people. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale.
Maintaining Ethics, Confidentiality, and Liability
Goal 1: I will be recognized as a person who complies with ethics in decision-making processes and instills confidentiality in all that I do. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with the elements of 1-strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree. The goal will be achieved with a score of 4 or more.
Objective 1: I will compare my actions regularly with the code of conduct of the organization to determine compliance. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with elements in goal 1. I will assess my areas of improvement.
Objective 2: I will use my areas of improvement in objective 1 to make changes to my action plan in 2 months. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with the same elements to meet targets of goal 1.
Goal 2: I will be known as someone who takes responsibility for personal actions by assuming liability for my decisions. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with similar elements in goal 1. The goal will be attained with a score of 4 and above.
Objective 1: Conduct a self-reflection exercise on my past actions and decisions to determine my responsibility and accountability. Evaluation method: Self-reflection that would help determines my areas of weakness.
Objective 2: Apply the areas of improvement in objective one to make amendments to my action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 that would match expected scores in goal 2.
Practicing Professional Development, Self-Care, Personal Reflection, and Self-Correction
Goal 1: I will be recognized as an individual who can improve on previous practices and efforts by engaging in self-reflection and practicing professional development in my field of work. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with 1-has a poor professional development plan, 3-good self-reflection approach, and development plan, 5-excellent personal reflection, and professional development. A score of more than 4 will achieve the goal.
Objective 1: Able by the provisions of my professional development plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 with the same metrics as in goal 1. I will recognize the areas of improvement through self-reflection.
Objective 2: I will use the noted areas of improvement in objective 1 to change my action plan. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 to achieve aspects of goal 1 above in two months.
Goal 2: I will be identified as a person who acknowledges my mistakes, including willing to conduct changes where necessary to enhance the success and improved professional growth. Evaluation method: Self-assessment based on my personal development goals. The goal will be achieved after the positive outcomes of the assessment.
Objective 1: I should note my areas of weakness and conduct amendments to my action plan. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to achieve goal 2.
Objective 2: I will seek help from my supervisor to note any areas that I can work on. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to achieve aspects of goal 2 above in 3 months.
Developing and Managing an Effective Culturally Competent Practice Including Organizational Culture and Environment
Goal 1: I will be noticed as a person who understands the culture and all its functions in human behavior and society. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations of competent v. incompetent, knowledgeable v. unknowledgeable. The goal will be achieved through positive aspects.
Objective 1: I will have the knowledge base of my clients’ cultures and demonstrate competence in offering services. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale with combinations in goal 1.
Objective 2: I will improve my understanding based on loopholes noted in objective 1. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to determine if goal 1 has been achieved in 3 months.
Goal 2: Improve education and seek understanding of the nature of social diversity as well as discrimination in various aspects, including race, gender, and sex. Evaluation method: Semantic differential scale based on combinations in goal 1 above. The goal will be achieved with positive elements.
Objective 1: I will conduct a self-evaluation process to determine my understanding of the various aspects of social diversity and oppression. Evaluation method: Self-assessment.
Objective 2: I will conduct amendments to my action plan based on the results of my self-assessment. Evaluation method: Use key performance indicators self-fulfillment to reach targets noted in goal 2 above.
Being a Collaborative Leader in Training Supervisees in the Effective Use of Technology
Goal 1: Be recognized as a person who strives for the best for my supervisees by working collaboratively with colleagues to enhance the effective application of technology. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 consisting of 1-strongly disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-strongly agree. Goal will be achieved with a score of 4 or above.
Objective 1: Rely on my supervisor to provide responses regarding my performance concerning collaboration in the last two months. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on combinations in goal 1.
Objective 2: I will ask my supervisees to rate my work in training them on effective use of technology. Evaluation method: Likert scale as in goal 1 above.
Goal 2: That I can plan appropriately to ensure that nothing is interrupted in the process of training supervisees on effective usage of technology. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 based on elements identified in goal 1. The goal is achieved with a score of 4 and above.
Objective 1: I will request my supervisees to provide views of their understanding of my training effectiveness. Evaluation method: Likert scale of 1-5 to achieve goal 2 above.
Objective 2: I will use the responses made in objective 1 above to make amendments on my action plan. Evaluation method: Self-assessment to make sure that the changes are achieved in two months.
Section 2
I can intentionally integrate leadership skills and the application of technology in supervisory skills while promoting advanced generalist practice. The advanced generalist practice is shaped by leadership, political, social, economic, cultural, geographic, and environmental aspects that are evolving unprecedentedly (Byrne, Kirwan, & Mc Guckin, 2019). I always ensure that electronic social work services are confidential at all times. For instance, the requirement is that information offered by clients should only be accessed by the authorized personnel that needs it. Requests for contents in the server ought to comply with the privacy standards of the social worker. As a leader, one needs to maintain clear professional boundaries (National Association of Social Workers, 2015). Social workers and leaders are required to be aware of boundary confusion that may emanate from the disclosure of personal details about themselves or other people online. In doing so, I will operate effectively and efficiently as a leader in advanced generalist practice.
Section 3
I can also incorporate current leadership and technology changes that happen in social work, especially those that lead to systematic transformations towards sustainability. Social workers have a duty of creating sustainability in the interventions with their clients (National Association of Social Workers, 2013). I will use my leadership skills and technology to sustain the supervision and a similar obligation when operating essay together with my supervisees by complying with standards associated with online and distance learning. Supervisees should be familiar with the ongoing practice, rules, ethical principles, and accreditations concerned with the application of technology (National Association of Social Workers, 2017). I will evaluate the sustainability of my skills by conducting self-assessments regularly in an interval of two months to monitor my progress. Some of the key performance indicators will include increased satisfaction of my supervisees and improved overall success in practice.

References
Byrne, J., Kirwan, G., & Mc Guckin, C. (2019). Social media surveillance in social work: Practice realities and ethical implications. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 37(2-3), 142-158.
Congress, E. P. (2017). What social workers should know about ethics: Understanding and resolving practice dilemmas. Social Work Ethics, 1(1), 1909-35.
National Association of Social Workers. (2013). Best practice standards in social work supervision. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=GBrLbl4BuwI%3D&portalid=0
National Association of Social Workers. (2015). Standards and indicators for cultural competence in social work practice. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=PonPTDEBrn4%3D&portalid=0
National Association of Social Workers. (2017). NASW, ASWB, CSWE, & CSWA standards for technology in social work practice. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=lcTcdsHUcng%3D&portalid=0
Tuten, M., Morris-Compton, D., Abrefa-Gyan, T., Hwang, J., & Harrington, D. (2016). Predictors of the use of evidence-based interventions among National Association of Social Work (NASW) members. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 13(3), 253-262.